Essay On Classical Conditioning And Operant Conditioning

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In psychology, there are countless approaches to how a subject could learn something; in this paper, however, we are going to talk about the classical conditioning, operant condition and also the application of it in the reality. First of all, we are going to discuss the differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is when unconditioned stimulus gets paired with conditioned stimulus so that the subject could learn it. However, the learners have to have neutral mindset about the conditioned stimulus in order to for it to be considered as classical conditioning. This type of conditioning has reflex responses, which means it reacts involuntary to a stimulus; salivation could be an example to that.…show more content…
There are 2 different types of reinforcement and punishment in the operant conditioning. Positive reinforcement is a type, which additional reward is added in order to increase behavior whereas negative reinforcement is when the reward is taken away to increase the behavior. Basically, reinforcement is the act to increase behavior while punishment is the act to decrease behavior. Positive punishment is when additional punishment is required to decrease behavior while negative punishment works vice versa. However, for it to be successfully effective, it has to be relevant to organism and shall be equal to crime or transgression.
Operant conditioning should have voluntary responses rather than reflex responses, which means that after the subjects learn, they should be responding to the stimulus voluntary rather than getting acted on. It has contingency since there must be rewards or punishments in the learning process in order to get the subjects to learn something. Skeleton muscle is where the influence of this learning type comes from, which makes it voluntary response rather than reflex
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For example, the pursuit of good grade in class; it could be said that there are many reasons why students want to get good grade. The good grade is the reward that the learners get after executing what is supposed to be done (good class performance). This is an example of positive reinforcement, where the better the performance in the class is, the better grade the students have. B. F. Skinner experiment known as Skinner box also uses positive reinforcement; the rat in the experiment was put in a box where he would get food from the dispenser when he pressed the bar (Liliendfeld, 2014). However, the rat would not always get the food since the time of food dispensed was varied. This is an example, which shows how the rat would get the food as the reward; it acts as the reinforcement for the rat to press the bar more.
However, if we look in the case that if we are a life coach and working with a client who wants to stop biting her fingernails. Operant conditioning could be a solution to her problem; one way to how we resolve it out could be to adopt the positive punishment. Every time she tries to bite her fingernails, we oblige her to put a pair of glove on her hands; thus she could not bite her nail again, and after times of trying to reach her fingernails she would ended up having the pressure to carry multilayers of
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