Mice are more active but don't like to sit still for too long which becomes a problem for those who wish to handle their animal. Rats are more affectionate, intelligent and easily socialized as pups. 2. Why should cedar not be used as bedding? Cedar shavings are harmful to the health of rats and mice due to the toxic phenols and acids that the shavings give off.
For this reason, certain principles upon which the implementation of a successful punishment is dependent must be adhered to. In accordance to these findings, this essay will contend that whilst there are alternative means to operant conditioning, certain punishment techniques have been proven to be effectual and in some aspects advantageous. The effectiveness of punishment “Punishment is one of the most used, but least understood and badly administered, aspects of learning” (Luthans, 1977, pp.300). As mentioned earlier, punishment is anything which weakens behaviour and tends to decrease it in subsequent frequency. Positive punishment is the method of administering negative consequences upon the occurrence of an action whereas Negative punishment involves the termination of positive consequences.
The conditioned stimulus (CS) on the other hand is a neutral stimulus that when it becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus, it will eventually cause a conditioned response. The conditioned response (CR) in this case will be the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. All together classical condition emphasizes the importance of learning from the environment, it supports “nurture over nature”. In this essay I will be discussing how B.F. Skinner modified Ivan Pavlov’s theory of Classical Conditioning in order to bring ... ... middle of paper ... ...l then gain its strength back. “The fact that conditioned stimulus (CS) – conditioned response (CR) pairings can be instated without great difficulty suggests that extinction does not involve unlearning of the associations (Redish, Jensen, Johnson, & Kurth-Nelson, 2007).
One such behavioral adaptation is neophobia, or the fear of new experiences or things. In most cases, if a rat is presented with a novel food, it may eat a small amount of the food. Then, if no adverse effects occur, then the rat may continue to eat a larger amount. However, if after the rat eats a small amount of the food it becomes sick it will avoid the food in the future; this is known as a conditioned taste aversion (lin2008). Early research regarding taste aversion in rats suggested that rats develop an aversion to water consumed before radiation exposure.
Replicability means that the results that were obtained from an experiment, are able to be duplicated consistently (Lilienfeld et al., 2013, p.24). An experiment or study should be able to be replicated to see if there are correctly or incorrectly done. Any area of study or subject that deals with experiments must have the principle of replicability because in order to make an experiment appear correct, multiple replications of the experiment have to be done. In contrast to classical conditioning, operant conditioning, discovered by B.F Skinner, is a learning process that involves either an increase or decrease in some behavior as a result of consequences (Amabile, 1985). Operant conditioning attempts to elicit new behavior through use of reinforcers and punishments.
The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism (e.g., Thorndike, Hull) is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforcers -- any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from adversive stimuli -- punishment -- which result in reduced responses).
An example of this is Kimble (1961) who had identified that the basic principles of impulsive recovery and stimulation generalization are common to both types of learning. However there are perhaps more differences than similarities. In terms of responses, classical conditioning involves involuntary responses where as operant conditioning is heavily relies on voluntary responses. For cognitive processes, in classical conditioning the organisms develop an expectation that CS signals the arrival of US but for operant conditioning this is not the case as the organisms develop expectation that a response will be reinforced or
The principle of universality is defined as “acting only according to the maxim by which a person can at the same time will that it should become a un... ... middle of paper ... ...nces of an action, believe that these benefits cannot be achieved with less suffering or at a lower cost to those who are being punished. They want to prevent offenders from doing further harm and believe that is it not morally right to punish criminals in order to give them what they deserve. Punishment is only justified if it promotes the general happiness according to utilitarian’s. As well, utilitarian’s would promote rehabilitation as a goal for punishment to reform and educate offenders to make them into more productive members of society. Utilitarianism would believe that retribution as an unethical form of punishment because it does not produce any consequence with no benefit in mind.
“Utilitarianism proposes a clear and simple moral criterion…[It] is interested in the consequences of our actions: If they are good, the action is right; if they are bad, the action is wrong” (Rosenstand, 2009, p. 225). In other words, consequences should direct our actions and move of us to make the correct the choice. It’s an approach where you have more control over the outcomes, even though you cannot have complete control over them. In this approach, people are also held more accountable for their actions. The basis of morality in utilitarianism is empirical, where shared experience helps determine what is the best way for society to act.
Not only does anemia make your kitty pale and lethargic, it can be a life threatening illness. Spinach The jury's still out on whether or not spinach is bad for cats, but scientists do know that spinach leaves contain a small amount of calcium oxalates (a chemical compound that makes needle-shaped crystals), which is a major component in kidney stones. If your cat eats enough spinach, it could lead to crystals in her urine. Cats with a history of urinary problems such as infections, crystaluria and kidney disease, should definitely avoid eating spinach. Unripe Tomato Everyone knows that tomatoes are good for humans.