Bronfenbrenner’s (1977, 1979, 1989, 1993, 1994) ecological theory suggested that child (human) development occurs for the child within the context of various environments. These environments, or systems, are influenced from within and between other environments. The individuals within each system influence each other through various transactions that occur between them. In ecological theory, these systems are nested with the child at the core, embedded within his/her immediate family environment. The system with the closest proximity to the child is the microsystem; this includes the child and family, peers, neighborhood and school.
An important aspect of this development is the way in which a child interacts in a social and school situation .It focusses on the emergence, and change, of a child’s morals. And if the child has an understanding of morality from childhood through to becoming an adult. (Trawick-Smith, 2014). The two theorists that play a part here include Piaget as well as Kohlberg’s. Social development refers to learning values.
(McLeod 2007) To understand the lessons that are learned in these early relationships, Bowlby developed the concept of ‘internal working models'. An internal working model is a set of expectations and beliefs about the self, others and the relationship between the self and others. Thus, the internal working model of an individual will contain particular expectations and beliefs about their own and other people's behaviour. (Howe 2011). According to Bowlby (1969), “the primary caregiver acts as an example for future relationships through the internal working model for the child”.
Behavior Nature: Heredity plays a strong part of an infant?s temperament. How the child reacts to certain experiences and how the child?s sensory feelings allow him to play out the situation. Behavior Nurture: The child learns social referencing from the caregivers/parents. The environment of the culture, economic standing and self esteem of those around the child will set the way that the child will learn to behave in a situation. Social referencing plays a part of how the child learns to control his behavior, by mimicking those around him.
These form the basis of a child’s belief system and impacts on who they are. In the counselling assessment process, it is essential to understand why the child might be experiencing difficulty, so the best place to start, is to understand the environment that has helped nurture the child from birth. Assessment targets include abilities, “achievements, personality variables, aptitudes, attitudes, preferences, interests, values, demographics, and other characteristics” (Association for Assessment in Counselling, 2003). A counsellor’s assessment of a school age child concentrates on abilit... ... middle of paper ... .... et al. (2010).
Cognitive development as Lee & Gupta (eds.) claimed is the term that refers to acquisition and development of knowledge and cognition, namely the processes such as memory, language, and problem – solving and drawing. When elaborating upon cognitive development, the three main aspects can be distinguished: the understanding of the objects by children, their ability to imitate caregivers and children’s ability to hold representations of the world (Oates, Wood & Grayson, 2005). All of the aspects play an important role in developing cognition of children and provide the explanation for the understanding of children’s learning influenced by social relationships and practices. In the essay there is going to be an emphasis on the social interaction between children and their caregivers and peer relations.
He divided their environments into different levels. Firstly, he described the microsystem as the system that is closest and one that will have the most influence on them. School and home fall within this system. For example, parent’s and teacher’s views on sustainability will influence how a child reacts to it. Also children’s interactions with parents, teachers and peers will affect how they are treated in return (Bronfenbrenner, 1994).
The set of systems and the individual’s interactions between and within these systems nurture or stifle an individual’s development. Bronfenbrenner’s perspective on child development transformed how researchers study human development. The transformation was evident in when researchers examine naturally occurring and designed experiments in order to determine the influences of contexts on child development. As the result of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological learning theory of human development, the environments including family to economic and political structures are part of the individual’s life journey (citation). Bronfenbrenner’s ecological approach to human development helped to unite the disciplines that have allowed emergent of key elements in the larger social structure that are vital in understanding the development of human nature
It includes all the relationships and contacts the child has with their immediate surroundings, such as family, neighborhood, school, and childcare settings. There are two directions in which these relationships within this tier impacts the child, towards and away from the child. For instance: a child’s parents influence their actions and beliefs; then again, the child likewise influences the beliefs and actions of the pare... ... middle of paper ... ...ts them know how important it is and how much their parents care about them and their education. Works Cited Aldridge, J. S. (1997). Examining contributions of child development theories to early childhood education.
Describe the process by which genes and environment operate together to influence development. Discuss the significance of these processes for our understanding of child development. This essay will give a detailed account of the process by which genes and the environment operate together to influence development. Looking at Physical development and Language development and the perspectives of Natavism, Behaviourism. Constructivism and Social Constructivism it will explain the role of these perspectives in understanding child development.