So why would a genderless society be unattainable since the primary factor of childhood gender-shaping is the parents? In fact, from the socialization theory, it could be deduced that genderless society might be achieved if parents would act in other way round- allow boys to play w... ... middle of paper ... ...A day might come when boys might play with dolls and girls might play with trucks, but people would surely notice this. Since our mode of life- morals, physical, social, gender, etc are being modeled, nurtured, and influenced by many factors of our immediate environment such as our family, culture, peers, society, education, community. If on the other hand, the environment nurtures or influences us the way the “fabulous baby X” was nurtured, there might be a success of a genderless society, but this will sound too strongly unattainable and an illusion of reality! WORK CITED PAGE Cohen, Jack and Ian, Stewart.
This review traces those steeps that Maccoby has taken in her research. She began her research with parent-child interactions, studying the affect parents have on the sex-typing behavior of their children, in hopes of establishing where children learn about gender identity. Maccoby then took that information and combined it with research on children’s interactions in play groups, which led her to believe that parental sex-typing is inconsequential in children’s decisions to play in sex-segregated groups. Maccoby (1987) argues that it is the combination of dominance and control with gender labeling that drives children to interact in same-sex groups. Maccoby then ascertains the importance of the interaction skills learned in these same-sex-segregated groups in affecting adult behavior, and illustrates the many parallels that exist between the interactions of the two different age groups.
Behaviorists tend to believe that virtually all roles, values, and morals are learned (223). Specifically, gender distinctions arise from operant conditioning and reward behavior that is “gender appropriate” and almost punish behavior that is “inappropriate” (223). According to the theory believed by behaviorists, GD would most likely stem from non-traditional parenting as opposed to traditional parenting. Cognitive theorists believe that gender identity becomes apparent around age 5, and based off of gender schema. Children see the world in simple black and white, male and female.
Sex Roles, 40(3/4), 265-80. Wood, E., Desmarais, S. & Gagula S. (2002). The Impact of Parenting Experience on Gender Stereotyped Toy Play of Children. Sex Roles, 47(1/2), 39-49. Santrock, J.W.
An alternative theory, expressed by Kohlburg (1966), suggests that children are not the recipients of any physical information from social experiences and therefore they search for specific regulations which will explain the way in which males and females are expected to behave. In addition, gender tends to be the first thing a parent wishes to find about their child. It can be suggested that from then on the child will be treated depending on the fact that they are male or female. This is shown in research attempting to cla... ... middle of paper ... ... both masculine and feminine toys. Generally, parents gave positive responses to their pre-school children when they chose same-sex toys but negatively to cross-sex toys, thereby reinforcing their children’s sex role differentiation.
Eckert and McConnell-Ginet go deeply into this topic in the excerpt from their book. The authors do a good job of discussing how gender roles are set in place as soon as people find out the sex of a child (736). The confusion between sex and gender causes people to believe that as soon as they know the sex that means they have to buy pink or blue clothing, throw pink or blue themed baby showers, and pick a gender specific name. (737-738). Blue is associated with boys while pink is associated with girls because it is a more delicate color (738).
This brings me to choose the side that gender differences are socially determined in my opinion. The perception of men and women and what they are supposed to be is basically produced by the society in which they live. Therefore, people say that gender is a socially constructed. West/Zimmer (1987), went so far as to renaming gender calling it Doing Gender, which mean that gender is made by us in everyday life with our interaction with other people. Whereas, from birth, children are assigned a gender and are socialized to confirm to certain gender roles based on their biological sex.
Both Deborah Blum’s The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over? and Aaron Devor’s “Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes” challenges the concept of how gender behavior is socially constructed. Blum resides on the idea that gender behavior is developed mainly through adolescence and societal expectations of a gender. Based on reference from personal experiences to back her argument up, Blum explains that each individual develops their expected traits as they grow up, while she also claims that genes and testosterones also play a role into establishing the differentiation of gender behavior. Whereas, Devor focuses mainly on the idea that gender behavior is portrayed mainly among two different categories: masculinity and femininity, the expectation that society has put upon male and female disregarding any biological traits.
There are four main theories in the gender acquisition debate, Evolutionary Psychology, Psychoanalytical Theory, Social Learning Theory and Cognitive-development Theory. This paper aims to describe and evaluate Social Learning Theory and Cognitive-development Theory. Social Learning theorists believe the development of gender occurs as a result of a child’s social experience and think much of this learning can be explained by conditioning and observational learning. Sex-role and gender behaviours are learned in the same way as any other behaviour. In terms of conditioning, parents socialise their children, preparing them for adult gender roles by providing them with gender-appropriate toys.
The repeated performance of gender allows the sexed body to be understood within the framework of gendered expectations, while simultaneously creating the notion that sex is the basis for gender, and that our differently shaped bodies inevitably lead us to perform particular expressions of femininity or masculinity. By saying it’s a healthy baby we allow the child to choose for them-selves. People whose bodies are seen as female are constantly performing somebody else fantasy of what being a women means.