Autism is a neurological disorder that was identified by Dr. Leo Kanner 50 years ago. Autism can affect someone very mildly or severally and it can effect language, communication, and/or gross motor skills. It is the most devastating disorder a child could have and it also is devastating for the family. There is no medicine and no cure for autism but there are glutton free diets that help.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, places autism in a more extensive diagnostic bracket called autism spectrum disorder. This encompasses a range of autism-related disorders that vary in severity. It is one of the most severe, chronic, behavioral disorders of childhood. Swiss psychiatrist Eugene Bleuler referred to autistic disorder as an unusual way of thinking among people with schizophrenia. A more in-depth explanation of autistic thinking is the propensity to view oneself as the center of the universe. The inability to associate with others and feeling like they live in their own worlds are some of the most descriptive characteristics of autism.
Autism Spectrum Disorder, Autism, and also known as being Autistic, can be a very mild or very severe disorder, or even a little in between. “With the May 2013 publication of the DSM-5 diagnostic manual, all autism disorders were merged into one umbrella diagnosis of ASD. Previously, they were recognized as distinct subtypes, including autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, pervasive developmental disorder- not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger syndrome”(1). Autism is said to be characterized by difficulties in social interaction, nonverbal and verbal communication, as well as repetitive behaviors (1). Autism doesn’t only come with disabilities, some who have the disorder also excel in some skills such as art, music, visual skills, and math. Autism is also a very widely known and diagnosed disorder. Statistics on Autism given from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified that around 1 in 88 children are on the Autism Spectrum. Autism is also five times more prevalent in males than females (1). While Autism seems to be pretty common, there is still some questioning on the actual cause of the disorder. In an article by Autism Speaks they announced: “..we now know that there is no one cause of autism just as there is no one type of autism. Over the last five years, scientists have identified a number of rare gene changes, or mutations, associated with autism. A small number of these are sufficient to cause autism by themselves. Most cases of autism, however, appear to be caused by a combination of autism risk genes and environmental factors influencing early brain development”(1).
Autism Autism is a neurological developmental disability that affects a person’s behavior and communication skills (AutismResearchNetwork.org). Commonly, those with Autism are diagnosed very early in childhood. Autism is the fastest- growing developmental disability known, with its prevalence appearing in 1 out of every 68 births (www.autismspeaks.org). The autism spectrum is so large, ranging from mild to severe symptoms, that no two people diagnosed are alike. With autism being the most common disorder among the human race (www.webmd.com), doctors and science, have come together to improve the technology in helping those with autism in many ways.
People with autism have a normal life expectancy. Autism affects an estimated two to 10 of every 10,000 people, depending on the diagnostic criteria used. Most estimates that include people with similar disorders are two to three times greater. Autism strikes males about four times as often as females, and has been found throughout the world in people of all racial and social backgrounds. Autism varies a great deal in severity. The most severe cases are marked by extremely repetitive, unusual, self-injurious, and aggressive behavior. This behavior may persist over time and prove very difficult to change, posing a tremendous challenge to those who must live with, treat, and teach these individuals. The mildest forms of autism resemble a personality disorder associated with a perceived learning disability.
Autism is a general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development. The Autism spectrum is vast and varies in degree of severity from person to person. The challenges that come with Autism Disorder include difficulty in social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Autism has been a diagnosable disorder since 1951. Treatment options have changed since the first diagnosis. Available treatment today has advanced over the sixty-three year span and has become the best possible form of treatment available for Autism.
Symptoms in autism is a withdraw into a state of "aloneness", delays in physical and cognitive development, and apathy towards attempts at stimulation. Language behavior is a major problem stated Menyuk:
Autism is a mental disorder that can come physical problems such as an inability to interact and communicate with others and potential speech impediments; children diagnoses with Autism, however, can lead successful and fulfilling lives with proper guidance, support, and compassion. Autism can sometimes be described as Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD, just another fancy word for Autism, which are both general terms for complex disorders during brain development (Autism speaks). The disorders can vary between social interactions, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors (Autism speaks). Autism appears to develop early in brain development and the main symptoms of Autism tend to happen between 2 and 3 years old (Autism speaks).
This comprehensive literature review is based on the analysis and research done on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a brain development disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. The social problems include less attention to social stimuli, less eye contact and difficulty in learning. The communication problem is due to a significant delay in language development as it affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize. Since the symptoms characterized by every affected individual is unique it is coined as “spectrum disorder”.
Autism is a mental condition that can occur in children from birth but is diagnosed in early infancy or early childhood. It is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout the lifetime of a person. It can be considered as a spectrum of disorders characterized by severe developmental deficiencies that can affect socialization, communication, emotional development and can cause repetitive or unusual behaviors. The ranges of the symptoms are mild to severe. There is a milder form of the disorder known as Asperger syndrome. Other developmental disorders that fall under the category of autism spectrum disorders are Rett Syndrome, PDD (Pervasive Developmental Disorders) and childhood disintegrative disorder.