Essay About Urbanization

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1. Introduction
Urbanization is the process of becoming a city or intensification of urban elements. Since modernization, the meaning of urbanization mostly became the transformation that a majority of population living in rural areas in the past changes to a majority living in urban areas. However, urbanization differs between the developed and developing world in terms of its cause and the level of its negative outcomes. Korea, as one of the developing countries, experienced what is called ‘ overurbanization,’ and it experienced a number of negative consequences of it, although it could achieve a great economic development by it. This paper examines how urbanization differs between the West and the rest of the world, the characteristics and process of urbanization in Korea, problems sprung from its extreme urbanization, and government policies coping with population distribution.
2. Difference between Urbanization in the Developed and in Developing Countries
Urbanization in developed countries in the West differs between the periods of before and after the Industrial Revolution. Before the revolution, the pre-capitalism cities were the center for government power and commercial activities. They emphasized communal living. However, together with the appearance of the Industrial Revolution and capitalism, cities experienced sudden increase of population. And, that increase caused socioeconomic change that the importance of communal living diminished and relationships became capitalistic. The traditional relationship between people changed to impersonal and instrumental social relationship.
On the other hand, urbanization in the developing countries differed from the process of urbanization in the West. In the Third World, throug...

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...As a member of the Third World, Korea has experienced quite an extreme urbanization. During the time when it was becoming more urbanized, it could achieve a massive economic development. But it also suffered from various urban problems as traffic, pollution, and housing shortage. The government’s effort to restrain urban population growth and develop more balanced society was a good try yet not so successful in reviving rural areas and solving urban problems. The developing countries, which still are in the early stages, can learn a lesson from the urbanization of Korea and develop adequate plans to handle intense urban expansion in the future. Future studies can compare Korean government plans with more successful population redistribution plans in other parts of the world and give suggestions to less developed states about proper plans responsive to urbanization.
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