Erikson's Theory Of Adolescent Development Theories

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Adolescent Development Theories
Emily Lewis
Louisiana State University in Shreveport
There have been many studies on the adolescent mind and how we learn and develop psychologically. Robert Havighurst, David Elking, Lawrence Kohlbers, and Erik Erikson are all psychologists that researched and created their own theories of adolescent development.
Robert Havighurst’s theory of adolescents is divided into “developmental tasks” that are critical tasks that come up in certain times of our lives. These tasks are an in between of the two opposed theories of freedom and constraint. The theory of freedom is letting a child have the most freedom to learn things themselves. The theory of constraint is when a child must be taught how to become a functioning
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The individual must resolve the crisis successfully in order to move onto the next stage of development (Sokol, 2009.) Erikson’s theory includes eight stages. The first stage of his theory is trust vs. mistrust. This stage occurs in the first year of life. An infant depends on his caregiver to provide him with the necessities of life. Provided that the infant is well taken care of, he will develop trust which will help develop relationships in the future and build the virtue of hope. The second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. This stage occurs around ages eighteen months to three years old. In this stage a child begins to discover that he can do things for himself and thrives from encouragement and knowing when to ask for help. Succeeding in this stage will instill the virtue of will. The third stage, initiative vs. guilt, occurs from ages three to five. In this stage a child learns how to take initiative while playing with other children, such as deciding what game to play. Children also begin to ask questions at this stage and if adult acts as if the child is asking to many questions or being annoying, the child will begin to develop a sense of guilt. If a child succeeds in this stage he will develop the virtue of purpose. The fourth stage, competence vs. inferiority, occurs between ages five and twelve. In this stage a peers begin playing a larger…show more content…
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