In 2010, California experienced its worst ever outbreak of whooping cough, also known as pertussis. The high levels of unvaccinated children in California are said to have been responsible for spreading and infecting 9,210 young children. Over 10 infant fatalities were reported in the California area at the time of the outbreak, all deaths were due to whooping cough. At least 9 of the babies that died from the illness were under the age of 8 weeks, making them too young to have been vaccinated against the highly contagious bacterial disease (Falco, 2010).
The first outbreak of Pertussis occurred January 1, 1500. Pertussis was discovered around 1906 by French scientists Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou. Bordet isolated the bacterium and continuously studied the strand. However, the first vaccine was not created until January 1, 1920 (timetoast.com). Pertussis is the leading cause of numerous infant deaths. In 2016 alone, 15,737 cases of pertussis were reported and out of these, seven deaths occurred. (2)
...accinations seem to be more helpful than harmful. Think about it, would you rather your child to have a strong immune system to fight off diseases, or would you prefer them to suffer from not being protected against these diseases. It’s your choice and the life of your child is in your hands when you determine if the vaccination should be administered.
Clinical manifestations of pertussis in adolescents and adults are often less severe than in infants and children. If previously immunized, a prolonged cough may be the only symptom. Other symptoms may include sputum production, sweating episodes, and sore throat. Complications of pertussis can result in pneumonia or otitis media. A severe cough may contribute to urinary incontinence, rib fracture, lumbar strain, hernia, and rarely stroke, or seizure in relation to hypoxia (Cornia & Lipsky, 2017). Complications of pertussis may be more severe in the elderly, those with other comorbidities, or ones that are immunocompromised.
The only way it could be solved is to have state laws or the United States government to make the laws. The first half of 2012 Washington had 2520 cases of whooping cough which was a 1,300% increase from the previous year, which was the largest outbreak since 1947 (Offit). If something does not change we could see a huge increase in these numbers. Just because we no longer see these diseases circulate around the United States anymore does not mean we should not worry since they are still a threat around the world and can still be brought back over from other places. More laws need to be put in place to keep everyone safe from these easily preventable diseases. The only way we can protect the ones that cannot be vaccinated is to be vaccinated so that diseases cannot spread so easily. Just because a disease is rarely found in the U.S. ; one infected person from another region can have a disease spread like wildfire if we stop vaccinations. More parents have to speak up about their concerns for their children especially in school. There has to be laws that do not allow unvaccinated children into schools and not be able to use a waiver unless it has been proven that the vaccination is deadly to a particular person. Annual vaccines for kids already save up to 3 million lives a year around the
Pertussis resulting from Bordetella pertussis is one of the most important death reasons in infants all over the world and is continually a public health issue, even within the countries having high coverage of vaccination. 1 Globally pertussis remains one of the top 10 causes of death in children and causes nearly 300 000 deaths in children every year.2 ,3
Pertussis, commonly known as whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by a bacterium, Bordatella pertussis. In 2010 it affected 27, 5501 individuals and was responsible for 262 deaths in the United States. Bordatella pertussis colonizes in the cilia of the respiratory tract3 producing uncontrollable coughing with paroxysms (fits) followed with a high pitched intake of air creating a whoop sound, posttussive emesis (cough induced vomiting), and exhaustion.3 These symptoms can last up to 10 weeks.3 Adults can transfer Pertussis to infants who are not fully immunized, subsequently, they are at a greater risk and may have serious complications from Pertussis including pneumonia and death.4
Today eighty percent of infants are being vaccinated for diphtheria; pertussis (whooping cough), polio, measles, tetanus and tuberculosis (Landrige 2000). This percentage is up from about five percent in the mid-1970s; however, the death toll from these infections is roughly three million annually. Millions still die from infectious diseases for which immunizations are non-existent, unreliable, or too costly. Vaccines all function with the same idea in mind, priming the immune system to swiftly destroy specific disease-causing agents, or pathogens, before the agents can multiply enough to cause symptoms (Landrige 2000). Classically, this priming has been achieved by presenting the immune system with whole viruses or bacteria that have been killed or made too weak to proliferate much (Landrige 2000).
Whooping cough is a disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella Pertussis. The bacterium are small, obligatory aerobic gram-negative coccbacillus,that are enclosed in a capsule. They are attach to and destroy the cilia in the trachea preventing the ciliary elevator from functioning correctly. When the ciliary elevator is working correctly it will lead trapped mucus and bacteria away from the lower respiratory system. The B. Pertussis bacterium produce several toxins. One such toxin is tracheal cytotoxin, which is responsible for the cilia damage and the other is pertussis toxin which enters the bloodstream and is associated with systemic systems of the disease.
P.L. is at risk for contracting pertussis because pertussis is spread when infected persons cough or sneeze. The cough or sneeze produces droplets in the air that contain the Bordella pertussis bacteria. People in close contact with each other inhale
A man named Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer studied the pancreas, leading him to the discovery of insulin. But in 1921 Frederick Banting extracted insulin from the pancreas of a dog. He then injected insulin into dogs with removed pancreases and saw the blood sugar of the animal go down. The use of insulin is still used in people with type one and two diabetes. The 19th century was a developing time for vaccines. A very common vaccine invented in 1926 was for whooping cough. Also whooping cough is a highly contagious disease that consists of a severe cough that makes a “whoop” sound when inhaling. In the 1920s, this disease would kill at lease six-thousand children a year. This disease can last up to one hundred days and can be prevented or treated by a vaccine. A bigger disease that took two million lives a year was tuberculosis. This was an airborne, very infectious disease that was treated with a vaccine. Doctors were able to treat patients with this disease and decrease the amount of lives affected by this illness. The Roaring Twenties was a time of discovery in treating various diseases and
It is one of the ten common infectious diseases which have the highest risk for death worldwide (Marzouqi, Richmond, Fry, Wetherall, & Mukkur, 2010). Although pertussis can be prevented by vaccine effectively and efficiently, pertussis, as an endemic disease, lead to about 45 million new cases and approximately 297,000-409,000 death annually worldwide (Fennelly et al., 2008). In Australia, pertussis has became a notifiable public health issue under the New South Wales (NSW) Public Health Act 1991 by clinic doctors, health organizations, medical laboratories, educational organizations and child-care facilities. The incidence of pertussis has increased from 1991 with 1.8/100,000 population to 2009 with a peak of 127.8/100,000 population, and nearly 40,000 cases were reported in 2011 (Australia Government, 2009; Department of Health, 2011). There are several uncertain reasons for the recent and widespread re-emergence of pertussis, which is an important public health threat among Australian since last decade, including improved diagnosis, cyclic diversity in disease patterns and inefficient vaccine (Marzouqi, Richmond, Fry, Wetherall, & Mukkur,
Before the introduction of pertussis immunization in 1950s, the average number of notifications in England and Wales exceeded 100,000. In 1972, when vaccine acceptance was over eighty percent, there were only two hundred and sixty-nine notifications of the pertussis. The public anxieties were about the safety as well as the efficacy of the vaccine, followed by a report published about a possible link between the vaccine and it making children have brain damage. This caused medical coverage drop down to thirty percent, in 1975, resulting in a major epidemic in 1977 to 1979 as well as 1981 to 1983, resulting in more than 200,000 extra notifications of the illness and in 100 deaths from 1970s to the 1980s. The vaccine coverage steadily began to increase over the next few years as the public as well as professional confidence in the vaccine was beginning to restore, reaching up to 95% by 1995 and started to stay between 93% and 95% until in 2010 when it spiked up to 96%.
Whooping cough is a highly contagious and acute respiratory disease caused by an aerobic Gram negative encapsulated coco-bacillus bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. It is a strict human pathogen with no known animal or environmental reservoirs and an air-borne disease. On inhalation, Bordetella pertussis colonizes the ciliated cells of the bronchio-epithelium to cause disease characterised by; epithelial damage, hyper mucus secretion, pulmonary edema and paroxysmal coughing. It is often accompanied by pneumonia, otitis edema, seizures, post-tussive vomiting and encephalopathy (1).