The activities of reason are dualistic in nature. First, there is inference, in which we move from old knowledge to new knowledge. The strongest form of this is valid deductive inference, which occurs when it is not possible that our premises are true of our conclusion is false, but I will deal with this more clearly later. The second activity of reason is the discovery of new truths. Such a truth that can be discovered by the activity of reason alone is called an a priori truth, and knowledge of it is a priori knowledge.
The premises provide reasons to believe that the conclusion is true. If the premises are true, the conclusion is more likely to be true. Arguments seek to ‘preserve truth’ – true premises will lead to a true conclusion. It is worth knowing a little bit more about arguments straightaway. DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENT Philosophers distinguish between two types of argument – deductive and inductive.
Most Philosophers talk of individual people being justified, not the ideas or concepts themselves being justified. What this means is that what may count as knowledge for one may not count as knowledge for another. The subjective nature of knowledge partly is based upon the idea that belief are things that individuals have and those belief are justified or not justified. When one thinks about this, it actually does make sense. Someone may have more evidence or different experience than those someone else has, and similarly they may believe things someone else may not or has evidence for something they don 't.
For instance, if we were t... ... middle of paper ... ...g but analytical statements that are true by definition and they do not produce genuine worldly knowledge. They argue that knowledge is based on both sense experience and internal mental experiences. It is very difficult to prove this though, because it seems that they have come to this conclusion based on reason. Rationalism and empiricsim both present good evidence to secure their arguments, but they also both have some holes in their arguments. It is impossible to prove without exception which of these ideologies is the correct one.
Relevance, I believe, is the relationship which the evidence has with the theory that it is trying to uphold. As two things with strong connections tend to support each other, evidence with close relationship to the hypothesis, is also able to support the truth within that assumption. Authenticity, on the other hand, is the creditability of evidence. Only when the evidence is valid, will the knowledge that it is trying to justify be accurate. Furthermore, evidence’s strength also lies within its objectivity and creditability.
Throughout the years, there has been an ongoing debate on what the causes are and how they can be improved. Since the early years, prison populations have been rising at an enormous rate. There are numerous causes and little is being done about it. Some of these causes are the increase rate of previous criminals returning after being released, more criminal offenses are being added to the penal code, “war on drugs”, “truth in sentencing”, harsher penalties and there is a shift from sentencing being indeterminate to determinate. These are just a few examples that are contaminating our system today.
There are many reasons as to why people are unsure of the efficiency of prisons. In the article "How Much Time Should Prisoners Serve? ", Table 1 displays evidence of the percentages of growth from the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ National Prisoner Statistics data series and Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports. The rise in numbers goes to show that there is an obvious problem as to why the number of prisoners continues to expand. People would like to see crime rates and the amount of inmates
Russell Ackoff defined information as, “information is data that has been given meaning by way of relational connection.” (Bellinger 2004) This definition was giving as means to illustrate the cycle of how information is formed and transferred. My own definition of information is that, information is the flow of knowledge to people from studies, books, investigations, etc. We obtain information from reading books... ... middle of paper ... ...ansferred through, including libraries, computers, and specifically people. The way that information coincides with our research behavior is the measurement of data, including demographic, environmental, and social aspects. The understanding of this paper is that Information seeking is important when trying to gain knowledge.
An example of this is the overcrowding that is taking place in California prisons, and how they have had to change their policies in order to house the criminals within the area (KQED and Center for Investigative Reporting). Spelman (2009) furthers this by saying that “it comes as no surprise to find that prison populations increase … in response to more or less punitive sentencing policies” (p. 51). Essentially, there needs to be a middle ground in relation to the penalty provided and a given crime for prison populations to possibly decrease or remain the same. Felman (2012) explains that the rate of imprisonment within the United States during the last forty years far surpasses that of any other country – “it is unmatched by any other society in any historical era” (p. 369). The increasing rate of imprisonment has contributed to the overcrowding of certain prisons within the United States.
Nils Christie’s text (2000) “Crime Control as Industry” draws upon increasing prison populations in the US. However reflecting upon that the prison population in England and Wales has increased from 41,800 prisoners to over 86,000 in 14 years (Ministry of Justice, 2013, 1) Christie also looks upon other countries that face similar problems and how this and modern crime control represents a move 'towards gulags, western type’ (Christie, 2000, 15). He describes the criminal justice system today as a “Pain Delivery” service (Christie, 2000, 143) and argues that it is regulated by the amount of pain they choose to inflict on society and not by the actual number of crimes committed. Christie also identifies changes in capitalist societies and their social organisation, this he says is due to factors such as a larger readiness to report incidents to the police and social controls have declined producing a greater ‘supply’ of criminal acts (Jones & Newburn, 2002, 175) However the main force behind this is crime control becoming a commodity, as represented by the expanding privatization market. Christie argues that crime control is now a product and privatization of the penal ... ... middle of paper ... ....org.uk/PressPolicy/News/vw/1/ItemID/179 (Accessed 29th November 2013) Prison Reform Trust (2012) Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/Portals/0/Documents/FactfileJune2012.pdf FINISH Pudelek, Jenna (2013), HM Prison Peterborough social impact bond has led to a fall in reconvictions, official figures show.