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Environmental Policy in Russian Cities

Water supply and sanitation
The primary sources of city water supply had been surface waters - the Volkhov River and Fedorovskiy creek, in which water constantly was being polluted during all the city and its upstream. In particular, the high chloride content in river water, besides salt formations and salt ponds near the city, could be due to wastewaters of Staraya Russa salt plant, which flowed into the Volkhov River across the Polist River and Ilmen Lake. In general, water was contaminated with effluents from city territory, domestic sewage, discharges of brewery, laundry, baths and hospitals, as well as barges, boats, fish cages. Fedorovskiy creek was so clogged household waste water, that in summer it dried out, and degradable wastes in the mainstream were creating favorable environment for epidemic diseases development. (FIG. 4).
Urban water supply was carried out mainly by water carriers. They gained river water, not caring about its quality, with rafts, where people bathed and washed clothes, and, for a fee, delivered it to Novgorod residents. Often they took river water from such places, where or upstream it various impurities flowed from the city. Therefore the sewage water, diluted by river water, brought back to the citizens. So water carriers for a long time have practiced water withdrawal from the Volkhov River from ferriages in front of Lerhovskiy Boulevard and military hospital. It was the sites, where water was polluted by wastes of fish cages, ships, baths and drainpipe from laundry hospital. (FIG. 5).
Due to such sewage circulation, drinking water was a poor quality, but mostly it was better, than water from the city watertower. The watertower ensured water the townspeople of Trade side the city and it was ...

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...902 g. (Novgorod: Tip. N.I. Bogdanovskogo, 1903), 48 – 49.
GANO, f. 104, op. 1, 1887, d. 566, l. 33 – 33 об.; GANO, f. 104, op. 2, 1892 – 1893, d. 194, l. 50 – 51 ob.
GANO, f. 104, op. 2, 1866 – 1872, d. 26, l. 1.
GANO, f. 104, op. 1, 1887, d. 566, l. 31, 34 ob.
Kurkutov, V oblasti sanitarii i blagoustrojstva Velikogo Novgoroda, 14 – 15.
GANO, f. 104, op. 1, 1887, d. 566, l. 16.
GANO, f. 104, op. 5, 1908, d. 42, l. 102.
“Doklad Novgorodskoj Gorodskoj Upravy Gorodskoj Dume 30 maja 1875 g. Po voprosu zakrytija kozhevennogo zavoda kupchihi Svinkinoj,” Zhurnaly Novgorodskoj Gorodskoj Dumy s dokladami Gorodskoj Upravy 1875 g. (Novgorod: Tip. Je. Klassona, 1876), 333 – 334, 342 – 343.
GANO, f. 104, op. 1, 1887, d. 566, l. 37 ob.
Kurkutov, V oblasti sanitarii i blagoustrojstva Velikogo Novgoroda, 19 – 20.
GANO, f. 104, op. 5, 1908, d. 42, l. 53 – 53 ob.
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