Environmental Effects Of Environmental Noise

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I. Introduction Sound is a mechanical and acoustic wave, stimulated in organ of hearing (Sinay & Balazikova, 2012). The word “noise” originates from the Latin term “noxia”, which means injury (King & Davis, 2003). Its etymology is linked to harmful stimuli and its response is associated with a reaction of dislike (Klaeboe, 2011). Also it disturbs human well-being and animal life. According to the World Health Organization (Fritschi et al., 2011), environmental noise is the “noise emitted from all sources except for noise at the industrial work place.” However, according to European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/EC noise is “unwanted or harmful outdoor sound created by human activities, including noise from road, rail, airports and industrial sites.” (Fritschi et al., 2011). The types of noise exposure include occupational noise, social noise (music heard in bars, or through earphones), and environmental noise (road, trail, construction sites, industrial) (Basner et al., 2013). Recently noise has become a form of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. It most documented effect is annoyance, but other health outcomes has been noticed as well including auditory and non-auditory ones (Fritschi et al., 2011). Noise has always been a part of our daily life, as background noise; recently it has increased until it became a chronic problem (Hildebrand, 1970). Hence, this presentation exposes impacts on human health and ecological wellbeing for proper risk assessment, management and communication (Fritschi et al., 2011). II. Environmental Impacts of Noise Pollution A. Impacts on human health Epidemiological studies have found that environmental hazards contribute to 25%of the burden of disease. The environmental burden of d... ... middle of paper ... ...donment of their habitat that leads to the decline of animals’ density in a certain area. On a bigger scale this could lead to migration of birds mainly disturbing the ecosystem (Francis, Ortega & Cruz, 2009). Plants reproduction is indirectly affected by noise. In his article entitled : “Human Racket Affects Plants, Too” Parry discusses how certain species (humming birds) would survive in a noisy area and help in the reproduction of plants, while others (Western scrub jays ) are noise sensitive (Parry , 2012). Evidence is showing that noise pollution is changing nearby animals and plants behaviors. New researches should have a broader perspective and study the noise effect on the ecosystem as a unit (Parry, 2012). Since this knowledge is crucial to maintain ecological processes and biodiversity in the prevalence of anthropogenic sound (Francis, Ortega & Cruz, 2009)
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