One of the research interests involves the development of novel treatments against the multi-drug resistant property of ABC transporters in treating relevant human diseases such as cystic fibrosis and Tangier disease (Stefková et al., 2004). With any of such novel applications, a substantial knowledge on sequence motifs in terms of their functional significance is required. In this essay, the discussion is limited to protein sequence signatures in nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of ABC transporters relating to substrate translocation. It will be seen that the protein sequence motifs perform similar function across species, and any mutation can affect its overall function. However, it should also be noted that these motifs can result in slightly different mechanism in different species, and that they can perform their function at certain domains of the protein.
Recognition via TLRs on dentricic cells causes signal cascades within the gut to induce cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial factors (Fig 2). Commensal causes the nuclear factor B(NF-B) to inhibits NF-B kinase and MAPK via TLR4 attaching to lipossacharides on gram negative bacteria . Signals allow for rapid post translational protein modifications. This prohibits tissue damaging immune responses to commensal bacteria and allows their survival and the death of pathogenic bacteria. A loss in TLR signalling can cause inflammation when the epithelium is infected by pathogenic bacteria.
103(30): p. 11329-33. 27. Caceres, J.F., et al., Role of the modular domains of SR proteins in subnuclear localization and alternative splicing specificity. J Cell Biol, 1997. 138(2): p. 225-38.
Telomerase can help remove that barrier by its reverse transcriptase action4. Composition and Function of Telomerase Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein DNA polymerase that catalyzes the lengthening of DNA on telomeres5. It accomplishes this by adding repetitive sequences of nucleic acid that are abundant in guanine2. Human telomerase consists of two major complexes, one being human telomerase reverse ... ... middle of paper ... ...Bache Nicolai. Robinson Phillip J. Reddel Roger R. Protein composition of catalytically active human telomerase from immortal cells.
Gene 497, 103-109.  Chen, S., Chuang, T. and Li, W. (2011). The Relationships Among MicroRNA Regulation, Intrinsically Disordered Regions, and Other Indicators of Protein Evolutionary Rate. Mol Biol Evol 28: 2513-2520.  Makova, K.D.
Front Biosci. 2004 Sep 1;9:2056-62. PubMed PMID: 15353270. Tsihlias J, Kapusta L, Slingerland J. The prognostic significance of altered cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human cancer.
AIM: The final goal for performing this project is to find out the crystal structure, active binding sites and functional analysis of the domains present in the HldE protein. By finding these important factors of the protein, and making the changes in active sites can result in altering the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer formation in bacteria. This helps antibiotics to act more prominently towards the specific kind of problems occur in those bacterial kinds. To achieve this, we need to perform the sequential comparison of the protein with other structurally existing proteins. Along with this, we need to purify the protein without any tags for forming crystals.
Enzymes play a vital role in biological systems as signaling molecules. Signaling occurs though a chemical reaction that enzymes help catalyze by allowing it to occur through a pathway with lower activation energy (Domin and Waterfield, 1997). Enzymes are made from a chain or chains of amino acids that are linked by peptide bonds, otherwise known as proteins. One particular enzyme pathway of interest is phosphoinositide 3-kinase (P13K). This enzyme is a lipid kinase that has further signaling activity once activated, also known as a cascade induction.
3. Hubbard, S.; Miller, W.Receptor tyrosine kinases:mechanisms of activation and signaling.Curr Opin Cell Biol, 2007, 19, 117-123. 4. Manash, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A. Tyrosine kInase- Role and significance in Cancer. International Journal of Medical Sciences.