Enhancing the Tourist Destination: An analysis of the Official Tourism Website of Indonesia

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B. Literature Review

1. Tourism Discourse
Tourism is a movement which comprises the straight interaction between cultures and all that this conception consist of namely culture and heritage, folklore, customs, gastronomy, dancing, rules, etc. The relationship between language and tourism has been paid attention by some scholars such as MacCannell (1976) and Urry (1990) who argue the tourism development depends on language use and how to construct and define the tourist experience and destination images. As Boyer and Viallon (1994) discovered that it is not so many destinations which is integrally touristic but rather the language use creates them be touristic. This concept was then developed by Graham Dann (1996) who was one of the first scholars conducted a comprehensive sociolinguistic analysis about the use of language in tourist texts and to distinguish the landscapes which portray tourism as a language of social control. Dann further categorizes the role of language used in tourism promotion can contribute to contextualize the tourist’ experience towards the destination. Therefore, as a function of the language of social control, tourism is a part of the discourse.
Indeed, in tourism, many people perceive their annual holidays as an experience which has the romance and exoticism value and self-fulfilling prophecy (Dann, 2012). This desire encourages people to look for romantic and exotic locations in pursuit of an unspoiled, primeval nature. Responding to this demand, the tourism industry stakeholders and practitioners offer a variety of holiday places or destinations in which the images figure out the beautiful scenery with an old culture. Many images in magazines, news, promotional materials and advertisement are not repr...

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