8 Dec. 2004 http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ming.htm . Davis, Richard L. Ming Dynasty. 9 Dec. 2004 http://www.virtualology.com.virtualmuesamofnatuarlhistory/hallofanthropology/china/themingdynasty.com/ . Hall, John Whitney and Rene Grousset. “The Establishment of the Ming Dynasty.” 1300’s Headlines in History.
A little over 2000 years ago Rome was one of the most important cities in the world. With its many emperors and armies it had gained control of a vast area of modern Europe known as the Roman Empire. Historians have linked several factors which led to the demise of the Roman Empire mostly associated with each other. Some of the reasons were the arrival of Christianity, lead poisoning and poor public health, political corruption with high military expenses, high unemployment with a rise of inflation and taxation in the economy. It was a combination of these factors which eventually led the final fall of the Roman Empire in 476 AD when the last emperor Augustulus Romulus was overthrew by a Germanic Guard named Odoacer.
After years of widespread ethnic conflict, the Anglo-Saxons had driven the indigenous Britons back to modern day Scotland and Wales, and came to dominate most of the main island. Towards the end of the first century another group begins to plunder the British Isles, they called themselves the Vikings but were known as the Danes to the Anglo-Saxons. Violent conflict erupted as the Vikings pillaged, looted, and terrorized coastal Britain. At one point, the Vikings under the leadership of King Harrod came close to actually taking over the entire island but were defeated at the battle of Dover. The British people, now united under a single government, continued to repel Viking invasion attempts until 1066, when William of Normandy defeated an exhausted and ill equiped British army at the battle of Hastings.
The first Republic was established in 1792. France was ahead of it’s time, forming the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in 1789; claiming that men are free and equal at birth. France has toggled back and forth from monarchy to republic over the next several hundred years, until today, where it is governed under its fifth republic. France suffered tremendous casualties in World War I at the Battle of Verdun on 1916, where over 300,000 men were killed. France also suffered in World War II, when in 1940 France as invaded by Germany and was under it’s control for nearly four years when in 1944, Paris, the capitol, was liberated and the Vichy government was overthrown.
The empire lasted until Germanic invasions, economic decline, and internal unrest in the 4th and 5th centuries ad ended Rome’s ability to dominate such a huge territory. The Romans and their empire gave cultural and political shape to the subsequent history of Europe from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to the present day. In 44 bc Gaius Julius Caesar, the Roman leader who ruled the Roman Republic as a dictator, was assassinated . Rome descended into more than ten years of civil war and political upheaval. After Caesar’s heir Gaius Octavius (also known as Octavian) defeated his last rivals, the Senate in 27 bc proclaimed him Augustus, meaning the exalted or holy one.
2004. <http://www.silkroadprogram.org> “Uighur Autonomous Region.” Encyclopedia Britannica. 2004. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 1 Mar.
The Black Death took the lives of over 25 million Europeans. Members of the church and clergy were a great percentage of those who died in the plague. The Black Death transformed the ways of the church, and ultimately transformed the west . Europe’s greatest known ecological disaster reshaped the way life and the events that were follow the 14th century.
The Plague struck first along the northern edge of the Black Sea in 1348, where it killed and estimated eighty eight thousand people in less than three months. The Plague reached southern England in the late summer of 1348 and swept northward through the following year. The Black Plague completed it's journey and died out by the end of 1351. Although the people of Medieval Europe did not know the direct cause of the Plague, they believed without doubt that God was responsible, judging human behavior and ready to punish the wicked. They concluded that this Black Plague was punishment from an angry God (Corzine 27-31).