Beginning with Henry II, not only was he the king of England, but also Ireland and France (Dutton, 280). King Henry II was known for his many legal reforms, most of them involving the rights and powers of the Church. Some of these reforms reorganizing the English government include improving the quality of jurisdiction of royal officials, regulating royal revenues, and emphasizing rules within the government and public (Dutton, 280). After his death, his son Richard I, also known as Richard the Lionheart, took his place. Richard I was rebelli... ... middle of paper ... ...h, England it was still able to remain a monarchy throughout 1100-1400 and still is today.
On the evening of October 27th, 312, he had seen the Chi-Rho, the si... ... middle of paper ... ...y the new order he had created. The victor in the struggle, his son Constantinus II, was an Arian, but he was no less committed to the Christianization of the empire than his father. Paganism survived, but only during the short reign of Julian the Apostate was it again represented on the imperial throne. Constantine can rightfully claim the title of "Great", for he turned the history of the world into a new course and made Christianity, which until then had suffered bloody persecution, the religion of the State. It is true that the deeper reasons for this change are to be found in the religious movement of the time, but these reasons were not important, as the Christians formed only a small portion of the population.
In England during 939 AD, the English King Æthelstan died and was succeeded by his son Edmund I. Soon after King Edmund's coronation, he faced military threats from King Olaf Guthfrithson (Olaf III of the Norse-Gael dynasty and King of Dublin) whom still laid claim to York which ... ... middle of paper ... ... the Vikings decided to stay in England and entered into King Æthelred II's service as mercenaries, based on the Isle of Wight. On his way to Norway, King Olav stopped on the Northern Isles to Christianize them by summoning Jarl Sigurd and ordered him and all his subjects to be baptized as Christians. Stating that if he refused, he'd have him killed on the spot and would ravage every island with fire and steel. Not surprisingly, Jarl Sigurd agreed to King Olaf's demand and the islands became Christian in 995 AD.
These are some of the key reasons why absolutism failed in Europe. To begin with, there was a great loss of human lives. Beginning in 1643 England, the closest absolute king Charles I attempted to storm and arrest parliament. His actions resulted in a civil war between those who supported the monarchy, Royalists, and those who supported the parliament, Roundheads, which did not end until 1649. Estimates for this war put the number of casualties at 200,000 for England and Wales while Ireland lost approximate... ... middle of paper ... ...search for a way to relieve the national debt, however policies by financial ministers like Jacques Neckler and Charles Alexandre de Calonne increased the debt even more.
Thankmar was defeated and killed, the Franconian Eberhard submitted to the King, and Eberhard of Bavaria was deposed and outlawed. In 939, however, Otto’s younger brother Henry revolted; he was joined by Eberhard of Franconia and by Giselbert of Lotharingia and supported by the French king Louis IV. Otto was again victorious: Eberhard fell in battle, Giselbert was drowned in flight, and Henry submitted to his brother. Nevertheless, in 941 Henry joined a ... ... middle of paper ... ...to ratify papal elections was included in the original version of the treaty or added in December 963, when Otto deposed John XII for treating with Berengar and set up Leo VIII as pope. Berengar was captured and taken to Germany, and in 964 a revolt of the Romans against Leo VIII was suppressed.
After his invasion and being crowned king of England, William began to dig into England like a tick and his Norman culture spread. William had pulled off an amazing feat through his invasion in England and as well as his earlier life when he rose to power in Normandy which allowed him to embark on such rigorous campaign. The Duke of Normandy, couldn’t have chosen a better time in which to invade England. King Edward the Confessor of England had died January of 1066 with no heir to take his place, and William’s distant family claims to the throne were an opportunity to declare himself king. With the support of the Church and an army of around 7,000, William landed his arm... ... middle of paper ... ... had animal hides laid about as an insult towards William’s mother.
The Vikings were experts at trading and exploring1, they were almost always trading and exploring with other countries. Europe and Asia were the countries that they mainly traded with4. The Vikings had one of the best Military’s during their time period, and were feared across Europe because they went on raids5. Most of their raids were rapid attacks on villages and towns5. When they were in battle all Vikings had a battle-axe, a shield, and a sword to help them in battle5.
King James II of England and the Glorious Revolution A Reflection of Autonomy and Responsibility James II of England was the first king to succeed to the kingdoms of both England and Scotland and to be crowned King of both. He was also known as the Duke of York, the Duke of Albany, and the honorary Duke of Normandy; a title that was never to be held again by an English monarch. He was called Lord High Admiral as he commanded the English navy in the Anglo- Dutch war, which resulted in a new English city renamed for him (New York). He became King of England on February 6, 1685 and remained so until he fled to France, escaping the hatred of his countrymen and the threats of his son-in-law on December 11, 1688. He was crowned King of Scotland 11 weeks after his coronation in England on April 23, 1685 and continued ruling over Ireland, even after his deposition, until July 1, 1690 when he was defeated by William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne.
William won the battle and was crowned on Christmas day. He was named William the Conqueror. William had taken over England by 1070. He had also taken over the southeast of England by 1066. By 1068 William had taken over the southwest and the Midlands of England.
The next year, following his victory in the Count's War, he became king as Christian III of Denmark and Norway and continued the reformation of the state church and began to enforce the change in his kingdom. The resistance to this escalated nearly to the point of civil war. It was also during this time of the Protestant Reformation that Iceland had also adopted Lutheranism in place of its earlier established Roman Catholic religion. However, the Reformation in Iceland proved to be more violent than in most of the lands ruled by Denmark. It wasn't until Lutheranism was firmly in place, that Catholicism was outlawed by Icelandic laws.