Energy Transmission

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In energy systems where the energy-collection process in an energy-material is needed as a step physically separated from the Processing Unit, the transportation of the energy-material that contains the energy is required. In the case of biomass-based energy systems, this step encompasses all the infra-structure associated with the logistics of supplying biomass to the Processing Unit: machines, roads, pipes, etc. Although the energy that flows through this stage is tied to the amount of raw material demanded by the processing plant, its cost structure may vary freely, dependent upon the type of transportation technology adopted (i.e.: pipelines, trucks, railroads), distances, daily demand of the processing unit, operation time, and physical characteristics of the raw material (as density). (4.15) Where: [%] Losses, “as logistic capacities decrease along the chains, due to dry matter losses, drying, or conversion” (C Hamelinck, Suurs, & A Faaij, 2005, p. 116); In terms of assets, two components are critical in measuring the level of asset-utilization involved in transportation. Regarding costs, two elements must be considered: distance variable costs (DVC), the component that is directly dependent on the distance traveled, and distance fixed costs (DFC), which is independent of the distance traveled. DVC depends on the transportation mode and the specific location. DFC depends on the type of biomass being transported and equipment. Hence, DFC will vary based on the specific form of biomass largely than DVC. “The impact of Distance Fixed Cost on overall transportation cost diminishes with increasing distance” (Searcy et al., 2007). 3.4.4 Stage 04 – Storage In storage, energy density relates the mass of an energy sto... ... middle of paper ... ...and the transportation distance. All potential paths connecting each biomass production site with the power plant are identified using the road network. The transportation distance is then identified as the length of the shortest route from the centre of each region to the power plant site. Furthermore, the effect of main logistic variables, such as specific vehicle transport costs, vehicles capacity, specific purchased biomass costs, and distribution density, has been examined in function of plants size. In order to assess bioenergy plants profitability and the impact of logistic variables, at first a comprehensive cost-estimating procedure has to be established with reference to the considered energy production processes, followed by an overall economic evaluation model able to capture the effects of varying parameters values on plant cost-varying parameters.
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