Oxford UP, 1988) ---. Eliot's New Life (Farrar Straus Giroux, 1988) Grant, Michael, ed. T. S. Eliot: The Critical Heritage (1982) Headings, P.R. T.S. Eliot, rev.
Smidt, Kirstian. Poetry and Belief in the Work of T. S. Eliot. London: Routledge, 1949.
Because TS Eliot often intertwined his writing by having one piece relate to another "The Hollow Men" is sometimes considered a mere appendage to The Waste Land. "The Hollow Men," however, proves to have many offerings for a reader in and among itself. The epigraph contains two pertinent references (http). First, "Mistah Kurtz -- he dead" is an allusion to Conrad's Heart of Darkness. In his novella, Conrad portrays the empty nature of men.
His use of “allegorically abstract text nevertheless achieves a remarkable unity of effect in terms of voice, mood and imagery” (Morace 948). Before the poem starts, there are two epigraphs; “Mistah Kurtz – he dead. / A penny for the Old Guy” (lines 1-2). Eliot alludes to these two epigraphs because their themes are developed throughout his poem. “The first epigraph is from Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness,” a story …that examines the hollowness and horror of lack of faith, spiritual paralysis, and despair” (Bloom 61), just like the “hollow men” in his poem.
As Morton Bloomfield observed in 1952, an understanding of the sins might provide a means of understanding the quality and “absolute worth” of the “medieval fabric” (243). Certainly, the sins appear throughout the literature of the Middle Ages. In sermon, drama, and verse, the sins are seen as the chief weapons of humanity’s three ancient foes, the world, the flesh, and the devil. From the unknown authors of the Celtic penitentials to the more artistically driven Chaucer, Langland, and Gower, the sins appear and reappear until their familiarity almost becomes a source of comfort. On the other hand, this same ubiquity may lead the critic to attempt some schematizing of his or her own.
Marchand, Leslie A.. Byron's poetry: A Critical Introduction. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. 2002. Buxton, John. Byron and Shelley: The History of a Friendship.
Boston: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1997. Matlak, Richard E. “John Keats.” Critical Survey of Poetry. ed. Frank N. Magill. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Salem Press, 1982. p.1542-1558.