Academically, it has been referred to as social intelligence sub-set. This involves an individual’s ability to monitor their emotions and feelings, as well as those of others, and to differentiate them in a manner that allows the individuals to integrate them in their actions and thoughts (Cassady & Eissa, 2011). There are four main factors identified in emotional intelligence. The first is the perceiving of emotions, which involves the initial understanding of emotions in order to perceive them accurately (Parker et al, 2013). In most cases, it could involve the comprehension of facial expressions and body language.
Definition of Terms Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is the individual ability to handle and detect the emotion that they experienced based on the information that they get, (Robbins & Judge, 2007). The person’s ability to control and manage their own emotion based on emotion in perception, managing self-relevant emotion, managing other’s emotion and utilization of emotion. Emotion perception is understanding and interpretation in own emotion and surroundings. Managing self- relevant is about how to manage and control the emotion. Managing other’s emotion which is capability to understand others emotion in surrounding.
Emotional intelligence has become popular recently. Emotional intelligence involves a set of conceptually related psychological processes that include processing affective information. Among these processes include the appraisal and expression of emotions, assimilations of emotions in thoughts, understanding emotions, and regulating and managing emotions. The most widely accepted definition of emotional intelligence is “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189). In a variety of occupational settings emotional self-awareness, regulating emotions in the self, social awareness of emotions and empathy, regulating
Emotional intelligence, considered a division of social intelligence, involves “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (Salovey & Mayer, 1989, p. 189). While this definition encompasses various processes, a particularly important ability involves the self-regulation of emotions. Emotion Regulation Once made aware of an emotional experience, individuals may choose how to respond. Understanding how people attend to their emotional experiences is the goal of an increasingly popular field called emotion regulation. Emotions can be regulated by either responding to the source of the emotion or by controlling the emotion itself (Gross & Muñoz, 1995).
Currently, there are three general models defining the EI construct which can be categorized into either the “abilities” model or the “mixed” model. The “abilities” model (Salovey & Mayer) refers to EI as a cognitive ability, much alike that of IQ, whereas the “mixed” model (Bar-On; Goleman) refers to EI as a combination of cognitive ability and personality traits. 2.1.1 Peter Salovey and John Mayer Model (1997) According to Salovey and Mayer, EI is defined as “the capacity to reason about emotions, and of emotions to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999). Their model constitutes four branches (table 1): Category Branches Properties Experiential 1 Emotional Perception Recognize and express emotions precisely 2 Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought Use emotions to aid cognitive processing, e.g.
In order to describe what humans are like and to explain why one is like that is the goal of personality. It actually describes and explains the human nature as well as differences between individuals. There are different theories that emphasize upon the various aspects of human nature and individual differences, and offer different descriptions, explanations, and methods for studying them. the best understanding of personality can be best understood by providing by the composite of many theories of personality instead of one single theory.
Attitude Functions Attitudes serve a number of various functions, ultimately such functions may serve individuals need to reinforce positive or negative attitudes toward objects. A number of conceptual models were derived from such perspectives; however, the most persuasive model is the multicomponent model of attitude which consist of cognitive, affective, and behavioral components that contribute to the structure and expression of attitudes (Maio & Haddock, 2010). The links between attitude content, structure, and function may give a better understanding of the attitude concept (Maio & Haddock, 2010). Primary Function of Attitudes Attitude content: According to Maio and Haddock (2010) the cognitive component involves beliefs and knowledge people may associate with an object. For example one may believe snakes are dangerous.
For example, understanding emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time. 4. Managing emotions: It means an ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and manage them to achieve intended goals. Components of emotional intelligence:- The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership performance.
Self-Assessment Review According to Bradberry and Greaves, emotional intelligence is “your ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and your ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships” (pg. 17). Emotional intelligence has two main competencies; 1) personal: pertains to self-awareness and management, and 2) social: relates to the observation and interaction with others. The competencies consist of four domains; 1) self-awareness: recognizing your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts and behavior, 2) self-management: one’s ability to control impulsive feelings and behavior, 3) social-awareness: understanding and picking up on emotional cues of others, and 4) relationship-management:
There are many possible definitions, one of which states that emotional intelligence is, “the ability to identify and manage your own emotions and the emotions of others.” Having this kind of intelligence requires one to be able to recognize and understand the meaning of emotions and their relationships. It is often thought that are there are three skill included in this type of intelligence, one, “emotional awareness,” two, “the ability to harness emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problem solving,” and three, “the ability to manage emotions, which includes regulating your own emotions and cheering up or calming down other people.” (“Emotional Intelligence”). The importance of this concept is described by psychologist Daniel Goleman in his Harvard Business Review article, What Makes a Leader, “The most effect leaders are all alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to known as emotional intelligence. It’s not that IQ and technical skills are irrelevant. They do matter, but...they are the entry-level requirements…” He continues that, “without it, a person can have the best training in the world, an incisive, analytic mind, and an endless supply of smart ideas, but he still won’t make a great leader.” (CITE) Regrettably, having a developed and mature emotional intelligence remains to be a privilege accessible primarily to only a limited statistic of people.