New York Times, on Sunday, November 8, had an article on sentences addressed by
a Federal judge to three members of the antigovernment Montana Freemen for conspiracy
and fraud; the article stirred my memory and concern about this paper, as well as brought
into play many of the dilemmas discussed in the Nature of Politics class. However, I do
not wish to analyze this particular article or cult, but the emergence of anarchy.
There have been theories and diagnosis of human nature: the Aristotelian, teleo-
logical view of the political animal, the Platonic, metaphorical view of the chained
caveman, the Hobbian, phobic view of savage life as inevitably ‘short’, and many
notable others. Regardless of the differences found in these, there is a common
denominator found in all. That is, human beings move from the animalistic, passive
stage to the civilized stage in order to materialize their potential in full.
In this domain, governments serve as expedients or facilitators of an anthropological
movement. The mechanism may differ from one type of government to another, but its
principal, common function is to lay and protect the foundations for a prosperous
humanity. In aiming this, a totalitarian regime, an oligarchy, or even a democracy,
resorts to some pattern of hierarchy. It is worth noticing, that no matter what degree of
legitimacy one government enjoys, or another lacks, they both eventually assume an
hierarchical order which in turn inevitably assures a pragmatic i n e q u a l i t y. History
repeatedly proves that beyond theory. Even in Communist Soviet Union where all
classes were abolished, as they were accused of being the source of all social misery,
even then and there, hierarchy rose with the communist-party-class at its top. In the
interstate system as well, although member-states are said to be equally sovereign, they
gradually form a multipolar or bipolar structure where-in the eventual hegemons lobby.
The complication, therefore, stems from the fact that any hierarchy fosters legal,
pragmatic, social inequality among otherwise -legally- equal entities.
Well, it is obviously not the case that people are gifted evenly at birth, or that they
share perfect analogy and symmetry between them, despite Hobbes’ high figure of even
selfishness. Society, kindly wishes to align people at a starting point in order to grant
them the most humble yet violated right which, as first stated by St. Anselm, is that “all
men are equal.
In this essay, the author
Opines that it is worth noticing, that no matter what degree of hierarchy, there is no hierarchy.
Explains how hierarchical order assures pragmatic i n e q u a l
Explains that classes were abolished, as they were accused of being the source of all social misery.
Opines that people are not gifted equally at birth, or that they are gifted evenly.
Opines that if there is wrong it becomes an abstract source of control and not a
Explains that freedom is the absence of any external force. any type of state is freedom.
Explains that they try to control or channel human nature based on a negative view of humans.
Opines that one may reject anarchy in theory or practice, but still needs to address its causes.
Opines that there is no fear of sudden, radical change in ephemeral trends.
Explains that one develops a social conscience by raising questions.
Explains that this was a steady practice in the ancient city-states in order to encourage attendance.
Opines that government is abstract, alien, or faceless when one is an active part of it.
Opines that human beings need to belong to a whole, if this need is addressed by an ideology.
Opines that security, and all the grand goods a state provides, do not amount to the appeal of the state.
Describes the lower middle classes, as well as incentives for the wealthy to care for and donate to their families.
Opines that this custom needs to be fostered and promoted, since all humans share the need.
Compares the state that serves the citizen, versus, the citizens who serve.
Opines that it is fairly right to say that all good things are good or all bad.
Opines that the article stirred my memory and concern about this paper, and brought into play many of the dilemmas discussed in the nature of politics class.
Opines that society, kindly wishes to align people at a starting point in order to grant them the most humble yet violated right which, as first stated by st. anselm, is that “all”.
Explains that a government is an arbitrary or legitimate hegemon of society, as the entity at the top of the hierarchical chain.
Explains that such power is a pure form of c o n t r
Argues that if justice is not found within the state, one may choose to live in a state of nature, where justice may not be found.
Explains that this value appeals to humans as being the highest and most true as far back as 400-300 bc.
Argues that attractiveness is based on a positive view of human nature. human beings are for the most part capable of rationally governing themselves.
Opines that authentic pedagogy should be seen as a means of culture and not as luxury in any respectable human society.
Opines that universities should be centers of culture, and that education is an end in itself. only when one understands one is able to forgive.
Opines that bureaucracy should be diminished in favor of mutual trust and reliance. capital and time saved could be invested.
Opines that a given sum transferred from rich to poor would enhance the welfare of the latter more than it would decrease
Hierarchical structure and society assume an imperative part for empowering inspiration and imagination in any association. Hierarchical structure and society are additionally imperative determinants of authoritative achievement. Customary structures were extremely progressive in nature, importance force streams vertically and upward, however today's associations are inclining towards compliment structures in view of adaptability of control over specialists. The significance of the pecking order is underscored firmly by Drucker, who states 'One hears an extraordinary arrangement today about "the end of the progressive system. This is outright garbage. In any organization there must be a last power, that is, a "manager" – somebody who can settle on the last choices and who can anticipate that them will be complied" (Drucker, 1999, p.
In this essay, the author
Explains organizational structure, society, and inspiration are interrelated. hierarchical structure and society are imperative determinants of authoritative achievement.
Explains how the structure of an organization can be characterized as the whole of the routes in which it partitions its work into unmistakable assignments and accomplishes coordination between them.
Explains that most writing depicts hierarchical culture as something that an association has. society is seen as an administration lever for enhancing control and/or execution
Analyzes how motivation in an organization stays high if a laborer sees open doors for self-awareness or expert progression, and is included with different authoritative choice making and objective setting procedures.
Analyzes the relationship between organizational structure and culture and their impact on the inspiration of people in associations.
should be satisfied from lowest to highest in an orderly manner. Its structure starts from the bottom
In this essay, the author
Explains that the ability to achieve organisational goals has been recognised to have a significant relation.
Opines that decision-making will depend on all employees and not just by employees.
Opines that individuals to achieve a higher standard of output as their accumulated efforts will effect the output.
Opines that modern management has also shown that direct orders from the top of the hierarchy are not effective.
Explains that employees are no longer controlled by managers but instead are advised by them.
Opines that it should be satisfied from lowest to highest in an orderly manner.
Opines that the need to belong will develop, and this is when individuals seek belonging.
Explains how to associate with others by socialising and crave to feel a sense of belonging with them.
Opines that the need for self-esteem will increase as people seek attention for their work.
Explains ball's theory that self-esteem involves the need for esteem.
Opines that individuals motivated by belonging needs will be motivated to achieve these needs as their efforts.
Describes yang, hwang and chen's findings that individuals crave belonging to a group of people.
Opines that this will allow the contribution of their growth need and this enables them to recognise their needs.
Opines that motivational factors have stretched out to all employees and not just executives.
Concludes that employees are no longer controlled but guided by managers.
Opines that existence is expected to be fulfilled nowadays while relatedness and growth needs are expected.
Opines that money may not be the sole motivational factor in our current society as there are certain prominent factors.
Explains that motivation is a desire for human needs and wants that encourages individuals to complete tasks. motivational theories prioritise satisfying the needs of individuals.
Analyzes how the need for achievement shows that individuals who seek this need work more efficiently when given a modest job.
Explains that the need for affiliation accounts for people who tend to work better in a large group rather than individually.
Explains that power seeks authority over others and aspires to make an impact on them. they feel the need to compete and have people recognise their efforts.
Explains that the first need is physiology need, which involves obtaining the basic requirement of food and warmth for survival.
Explains that physiological needs serve as channels for all sorts of other needs as well. safety needs include developing a safe environment to be in and obtaining an employment that can stabilise the individuals income.
Explains maslow's definition of the desire to fulfill a task, which can only be pursued when all the other needs have been fulfilled.
Opines that the needs of individuals should be satisfied as long as they are satisfied.
Explains the alderfer’s erg theory, which is a motivational theory concerned on how needs affect human performance.
Explains that maslow's theory of needs consists of physiology needs and safety needs, which are fundamental for survival.
Concludes that existence needs is still seen as a motivator factor in modern management but only to an extent, as individuals are expected to fulfil this needs before becoming an employee.
Explains that belonging, self-esteem, and self actualisation are expected to be fulfilled before entering a workplace.
Hierarchy in an organization entails a structure whereby every department apart from one, is a subsidiary of another single entity. It starts with authority from the top up to the lowest level of management in the organization. The ranking depicts the authority and power in each level. For instance the top level has more authority and powers compared to the subordinate rankings. Each level also has a specified number of individuals such that the top most which is the apex, has very few people while the base has thousands of individuals.
In this essay, the author
Describes the top management of an organization. they are responsible for achieving the organization's goals, but do not involve themselves in the daily running of the business.
Explains that middle managers help the lower level of management of first line managers in achieving the business objective.
Describes wruck, jensen, and harvard university press' foundations of organizational strategy.
Explains that hierarchism is an effective political action that requires a hierarchy of command, centralised control, and institutionalization of roles of expertise and leadership.
Explains that managers at each level engage themselves in different functions of management, such as planning, leading, organizing, and controlling. hierarchy entails rising from one level to another through promotions in terms of performance and experience.
Explains that managers need to motivate their employees through incentives such as promotions, compensation packages, job design, and the style of management.
Explains that hierarchy requires a hierarchy of command from the top level management to the first level class of managers. institutionalization is important for the coordination of each unit in the organization.
Cites edwin, n., souza-poza, and henrie, m.
Cites murphy, jensen, and paauwe. understanding and motivating health care employees: integrating maslow's hierarchy
There are several arguments against philosophical anarchism. Most of the arguments are in line with either the theory that consent is not required or of the theory we have already consented. For the sake of being brief, this essay will attempt to refute only the latter of the two. Along with the idea of individual consent is the longstanding, traditional theory of the authority of God. Other arguments follow a less anarchist view and are that of tacit consent and more specifically that of majority consent.
In this essay, the author
Explains that there are several arguments against philosophical anarchism. most of the arguments are in line with either the theory that consent isn't required or of our already consented theory.
Argues that the idea that consent is essential for the legitimacy of political authority can be argued against in many ways.
Analyzes the argument of tacit consent, which states that we consent to government through some action such as voting, paying taxes, or even living in its territory.
Explains the argument of majority consent, which states that not everyone is required to consent but a degree of the majority is sufficient to make governmental command legitimate.
Opines that the theory of consent may not be realistic and the practical applications of it would make government unstable and ineffective.
Explains that the arguments against anarchism have many problems. they encourage ignorance of any thought regarding whether political authority is legitimate and require that a person give up free will and responsibility from themselves to authority.
Can Anarchy Work?
Anarchy: a theory that regards the absence of all direct or coercive government as a political ideal and that proposes the cooperative and voluntary association of individuals and groups as the principal mode of organized society (Dictionary). The question I pose is, will and can anarchy ever work in our world?
Dreams of a utopia linger under our breath, as if they were dirty secrets waiting to be told.
In this essay, the author
Describes anarchy as a theory that regards the absence of direct or coercive government as political ideal and proposes cooperative and voluntary association of individuals and groups as the principal mode of organized society.
Explains that anarchism is a belief that revolutions exist in every moment of our lives and that we cannot wait for this "grand moment" as believed by most revolutionaries.
Opines that anarchy can work, but only if given the right conditions. having less coercion means relying on man's moral sense to guide him.
Explains that anarchy relies on our ability to cooperate with one another instead of being forced into institutions.
Argues that 50 percent of the population is below average in intelligence, which could hinder anarchism as an alternative institutional system.
Opines that the power-elite are ruling us, while the ignorant could do a "better" job, without abusing power. the uneducated choose weapons to speak for them, instead of an anarchist pamphlet.
Opines that governments have hushed the talk of anarchism by throwing more problems at the world to deal with. anarchists seek to eradicate government and hierarchy that hold us down, so that the people can truly be free.
Explains that in the late 19th century, working conditions were harsh across the globe as the class gap grew. revolution was seen to most as a way to use violence to resist violence.
Explains how anarchy became a strong movement across the globe, using violence across twenty-year span to assassinate six heads of state.
Explains that anarchism can be peaceful, but the true followers accept the use of violence as a "necessary evil" to combat authoritarianism.
Explains that anarchy can work as a social form of engagement, but not in its pure state. the people's voice can help shift our ideas in the right direction.
Cites random house, inc., lexico publishing group, and gould, beth. a brief history of anarchy.
There it is, the “A” word; Anarchy. The word that may frighten some or the word would make some think it’s just mindless chaos and destruction. In this paper I will provide some information on Anarchy.
In this essay, the author
Explains that there are many schools of thought, including individualist, social, anarcho-pacifism and religious.
Analyzes how individualistic anarchy centralizes on the will of the individual to do what they want and not to follow the same paths others do.
Opines that people should ignore social norms to live as they want to.
Explains that many are doubtful this would work because of the idea of answering to authorities in the various religons.
Explains that philosophical anarchists believe in following what one believes to be a moral way of life and that we do not need to follow the commands and laws of the government because they lack ethical authority.
Describes what they want to make of anarchy and what the form of it should be.
Opines that all anarchist schools of thought seem fairly different but it all comes down to the thing they all want; complete freedom.
Opines that an anarchy could happen from revolution or years of reform, but it would take an extraordinary amount of effort to establish, not to mention danger to anarchists.
Argues that an anarchist society could work together against crime and develop a system of rules they agree upon and decide collectively on how someone should be punished.
Explains that anarchists with similar ideals would form separate communities. they would work with the goals of the type of anarchy they choose or where they feel like they fit.
Opines that it is ultimately up to one's opinion if it can or can't.
Opines that anarchy may be seen to some as utopian society to others an idea that would never work. it would all depend on the conditions of the world and if it happened too fast it would surely cause an unstable mess.
Explains that anarchy has multiple definitions by many dictionaries. it is a state of disorder, lawlessness, or utopian society.
Explains that collectivism is the idea that there is no private ownership and that everything should be shared equally. the communist would get rid of money, private property, and markets.
Opines that slow change without violence is the best way to establish anarchy because violence will only bring oppression.
When one thinks of Anarchy they will immediately think of destruction and chaos. Of course, one who knows the beliefs of Anarchy will know otherwise. Anarchism is a political philosophy that upholds the belief that no one should be able to coerce anyone and no society should contain a wide variety of groups who coordinate social functions. It is the opportunity to live the life that you decide is best for you. In the eyes of Anarchy, government is corrupt and the people of society should govern themselves.
In this essay, the author
Explains that anarchy is a political philosophy that upholds the belief that no one should be able to coerce anyone and no society should contain wide variety of groups who coordinate social functions.
Opines that anarchy has many principles and there are various forms of it. there are advantages to having a society where everyone rules equally.
Explains that jefferson once said government is best that governs least, while the anarchist agreed with this statement and created the idea that the best government should not govern at all.
Analyzes the disadvantages of anarchy, such as not stealing and not lying, but how would a penalty for murder be set out if there is no one to enforce the punishment?
Opines that if everyone had a chance to say what they want, and try to get others to believe, there would be no one in charge to decide what is safe and how to move forward.
Explains that anarchy is not to be defined as chaos, but as equality, solidarity, and safety from being coerced.
Hierarchies control individuals which limit their ideas. Davidson shows this when describing formal education. Davidson
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how cathy davidson, azar nafisi, and karen ho discuss hierarchies and how they define intelligence.
Analyzes how davidson shows that formal education is based on hierarchies, which implies that they determine everything such as the curriculum.
Analyzes how davidson uses "that spectrum" to describe the model that hierarchies follow which causes individuals to have a limited sense of understanding.
Analyzes how nafisi and ho show how hierarchies are limiting our options by controlling our actions.
Explains that hierarchies control individuals thereby limiting their ideas. by controlling the gestures and performance individuals are restricted to the information and values that the hierarchy tells them.
Analyzes how cathy davidson shows persistence throughout her passage about letting her students grow more than the standard of formal education.
Analyzes how nafisi and her students resisted the islamic state of iran by using their imagination and banned books to learn.
Opines that individuals who resist hierarchies grow intellectually and learn to have different values. they limit their opportunities by chaining themselves to things that they do not like.
Anarchism: Conception and contextualization
A principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being(Kropotkin).
Anarchism is an elusive term. It is both a philosophy and a personal orientation(Bucci 61).
In this essay, the author
Opines that harmony in such a society is obtained, not by submission to law, or by law.
Opines that consumption, as well as the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of consumers, is a necessity.
Explains that proudhon was the first self-proclaimed anarchist. he opposed a common belief of liberals: universal suffrage.
Explains that anarchism is the cumulative reworking of rousseau, comte, and hegel through the lenses of godwin, proudhon, bakunin and kropotkin.
Opines that a third sort are perhaps out of the reach of any power of thought.
Describes some topics with so delicate a touch so as to elude the supplement of consciousness?
Analyzes how godwin stages a psychodynamics that places the rational subject under erasure.
Explains peter kalol's ten anarchist principles in his personal manifesto.
Analyzes how bucci describes the misunderstandings of anarchism which perpetuate its weaknesses.
Argues that the organization of anarchy faces a rebuttal as the anarchism itself is self-righteous. the foundational concepts have withstood differentiation.
Explains that anarchism is a philosophy and personal orientation, and its earliest conception was set in ancient greece by the philosopher zeno.
However, more than act out of the simple drive to quench curiosity, individuals in society also act due to other motives. Whitworth and Whitworth (2010) point out that man in society acts out of self and social interests, in both the natural and social world. Therefore, when an individual starts a business, the aim is to make profit, but at the same time, meet a social need. This is the reason in the first civilized nations, individuals decided to cooperate so that fighting enemies and securing food could be easier; thus in this instance, man cooperates with other people, in order to meet the selfish motive of self preservation. Whitworth and Whitworth (2010) add that human evolution paralleled social and technical evolutions, and is the reason man started living communally; social evolution dictated that forceful taking of items from other people was wrong, hence the commencement of simple trade.
In this essay, the author
Explains that man's ability to organize and socialize with the immediate environment relates to his curiosity, which fuels the need to learn, investigate, and can only be satisfied behaviorally through exploration.
Explains that individuals in society act out of self and social interests, in both the natural and the social world. human evolution paralleled social and technical evolutions.
Analyzes how ross (2012) argues that social evolution leads to increased individualism, which in turn spurs further change in social behavior.
Argues that social behavior evolves because changes in living conditions and the environment dictate that man adapts in order to optimize their chances of survival.
Explains that technological changes in the environment also lead to change in social behavior. exposing an individual to a new way of doing the same thing implies that interaction with the process changes.
Explains that behavior drives evolutionary change because it exposes organisms to novel selection pressures resulting in evolution of life history and physiology.
Explains greenwood and guner's premise that social evolution relates to technological changes in society, which affect the production and consumption abilities.
Explains the evolution of social behavior in cooperation in joint enterprises, stating that individuals often act selfishly, looking to reap more than they put in such situations.
Argues that social evolution in societies takes place over a long period because it propagates through individuals in society.
Illustrates rousseau's example of a primitive society that is undergoing growth, where communication becomes easier, and wasielesk and hayibor (2009) explain that values such as altruism, reciprocity and social exchange emerge in the establishment of organizations.
Explains that evolutions in social behavior have affected the whole society or a part of society, and the speed at which the evolution took place has been determined by the technology of the era.
Cites alonso, h.h., bergman, j. (2002), darwin's critical influence on the ruthless extremes of capitalism.
Cites boesch, c., oxford handbook of comparative evolutionary psychology, 486-503.
Cites chasin, a., and davies, l. s. on racial inequality in america.
Describes clendinen, nagourney, and cohen's views on the sexual counterrevolution in america.
Explains doepke, tertilt, and voena's views on the economics and politics of women’s rights.
Cites duckworth, r. a., and ellison, n. b. on the role of behavior in evolution.
Cites ferry, n. c., guner, and greenwood, j.
Explains hauert, c. (2006). cooperation, collectives, formation and specialization. advances in complex systems, 9(4), 315-335.
Cites hawkesworth, m. e., chopp, and strohl, d. (2007). sexual stigma: putting sexual minority healthissues in context.
Cites lin, atkin, and malhotra's book, communication technology and social change: theoryand implications.
Explains mcgill's disco dressing guide for men and women. nelson, r. (2006). evolutionary social science and universal darwinism.
Cites ross, d., and smith, t.w.
Cites d. buckingham's 'growing up digital: the rise of the net generation' and thomas, a.
Cites warren, c. j. e., & hayibor, s. (2009). evolutionary psychology and business ethics research.
Cites whitworth, b., et al. (2010). the social environment model: small heroes and the evolution of human society.