Throughout time, many cognitive scientists have developed arguments supporting the common assumption that psychology needs to appeal to internal cognitive processes to understand intelligent behavior. For example, Tolman first said that the mind is a system made up of representational systems (Flanagan, 1991, p.178). Think about an object such as a water bottle. You have beliefs and ideas about water bottles in general that are specific to the meaning of this object. Because our mind creates representations for things in the world it can be concluded that the mind is also an intentional system (Flanagan, 1991, p. 178).
This can be described as part of a human being that allows them to express an awareness of the environment and background of experiences, as a part of our knowledge about consciousness (Holt et al. 2012). Reconsidering these diverse ideas of consciousness has made psychologists interested to learn more about the mystery of consciousness in many special ways. The scientist in 1850`s started to study human perception, vision and the nervous system in the human mind. William Wundt started to explore the understanding of consciousness, as well as feelings, emotions and ideas.
The Mind-Body Problem The mind-body problem, which is still debated even today, raises the question about the relationship between the mind and the body. Theorists, such as René Descartes and Thomas Nagel, have written extensively on the problem but they have many dissenting beliefs. Descartes, a dualist, contends that the mind and body are two different substances that can exist separately. Conversely, Nagel, a dual aspect theorist, contends that the mind and body are not substances but different properties. However, although Nagel illustrates the problems with Descartes= theory, Nagel=s theory runs into the problem of panpsychism.
Given the wide array of responses to the mind-body problem I will only cover those given by Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz. I will also strive to show how each of these philosophers discuss what mind and body are and how each accounts for God’s influence on the interaction of mind and body, as this is an interesting distinction between them, as well as the important question of the role of substance. This is important, I believe, because it helps to understand the dialogue between the three philosophers. Descartes is a very well-known philosopher and has influenced much of modern philosophy. He is also commonly held as the father of the mind-body problem, thus any paper covering the major answers of the problem would not be complete without covering his argument.
Nature influences our abilities or our capacity to do something. If nature can determine how quickly someone can develop a talent, then it does not play such a minimal role in our actions. Zoologist Matt Ridley argues that is nature via nurture in his article “What Makes You Who You Are.” Ridley states that “[genes] are both the cause and the consequence of our actions” (Ridley 5). Our genes and our actions are more connected than we thought. Genes can produce actions and our actions affect which genes are active in our lives.
Because of that, is important discuss about its characteristics, and the ways that the soul acquires knowledge. The soul could be characterized by presenting aspects such as: thinking, perceiving, and discriminating, and also local moveme... ... middle of paper ... ...round the soul is essential to help understand the essence of human being, which is something complex and debatable for many years, where the science tries to find a scientific explanation for the functioning of the human physique. In all this context Aristotle is considered a great contributor with his theory of “Tabula Rasa”, where here claim that the knowledge is something that we learn and acquire during the life. Works Cited Aristotle. De Anima.
An age-old question has been asked for generations before us. What is the reasons behind the development of human behavior? There have been many theories formulated to explain why humans behave the way they do. Explanations vary from demonology to magnetic fluids controlling people’s behaviors. Over time, two theories have remained popular in academic fields such as philosophy and psychology.
Throughout the years, the inclusion of philosophy has changed literature itself with the rise of curiosity and reasoning,... ... middle of paper ... ...se to discover the nature of truth and knowledge, finding what is life and its meaning. These philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, John Locke, and Voltaire were able to express their philosophies and influence the world and its people, not only thanks to literature, but for literature. Aspects such as logic, reasoning and ethical values were ideals which created strive for philosophy, but of course not forgetting the main purpose and core of philosophy, which is curiosity. Curiosity was the reason people started thinking philosophically in the first place and the reason people started reading philosophical literature. These philosophical literatures has led to the world we live in today, teachings and views have influenced our daily decision in the way that it has caused us to reason and determine our values all due to the inclusion of philosophy in literature.
It also requires reason and logic from what was originally observed to come up with the theory. An example of this could be seen from Darwin’s theory of evolution. He observed and experimented on different species of animals and realized that many had similar characteristics and features. After observing countless pieces of evidence, he came with the theory that certain species had evolved from a common ancestor, giving the similar characteristic but also slight variation. Darwin’s theory did not come solely from passive observation or active experimentation on animal species but also involved critical reason and logic.
Theories have been composed and exposed by various philosophers to clarify their reasoning about the mind. Dualism, Behaviorism, and Identity Theory, are well-known theories supported by well-written explanations. A modern theory, Functionalism provides ample insight to the main problem philosophers deal with, the mind/body problem. Functionalism was developed as a combination of the Behaviorist theory and the Identity theory. Behaviorism believes being in a mental state is the same as a physical state, which is a noticeable behavioral characteristic.