During this election, Lincoln became the first Republican president, vowing to abolish slavery. Lincoln winning presidency gave the South a huge disadvantage, slavery was vital to the Southern economy, so this posed a great threat to the South. Immediately after the election, seven southern states seceded from the Union to form a new nation called the Confederate States of America. Lincoln, of course, attempted to avoid disunion, but failed miserably. Therefore, within the first months of his presidency, the Nation was engaged in war.
The people in the United States became torn between the economic benefits of slavery and the moral and inhumane issues it raised, white Southerners grew more and more defensive of slavery. The economic divisions between the North and South became fully exposed in the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, a member of the newly formed anti-slavery Republican Party. The South would not allow any formal debate on the slavery issue and launched the secession crisis that started the Civil War. During the war, Abraham Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation which called for the freeing of the slaves, but not until after the Union had won the war and the passing of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution were the American slaves officially freed.
Secondly, how did he transmit from his promise not to change slavery, to a choice after one lone year, to issue a liberation decree? The U.S. Constitution, and the progress of the civil war hold all the answers. As an individual, Lincoln absolutely hated slavery, he wished to prohibit it from the new states that were developing. However, because he was president of the United States, Lincoln was bound by the Constitution which does not specify if slavery is actually legal or illegal. As president of the military in the Civil War, Lincoln was agonized over the backing of the borderline slave states and the Northern Democrats.
“If anything, the opposition was more powerful and effective in the North than in the South.” (Why Did the Confederacy Lose?, pg 120) However the powerful opposition in the North w... ... middle of paper ... ...t and see it as a way to get rid of the moral burden of slavery. The conservative stands Lincoln originally held were broken with the Emancipation Proclamation, causing a massive internal struggle in the South to bring them down. This is why the North had already won to the extent of Lincoln’s conservative political stands. “Having taken an oath to preserve and defend the Constitution, which protected slavery, “I did not consider that I had a right to touch the ‘State’ institution of ‘Slavery’ until all other measures for restoring the Union had failed….”” (Who Freed The Slaves, pg 203) The attrition strategy was halted with the mental conversion of the war being a moral war and the internal divisions in the South would finally clinch victory for the North. However all other advantages were possessed by the North and therefore the North had won the Civil War before it began to the extent of Lincoln’s conservative political stands.
In 1860 when Abraham Lincoln won the presidency, he pledge with his admirable strong voice to keep slavery out of territories. The Confederate States of America helped form a new nation by the slave states in the South. The Northerner people were not impressed with Lincoln’s decision; they feared that the democracy would create the United States and form smaller countries. War broke out at Fort Sumter in Charleston Bay in 1861, forcing the United States to lower our pride and joy, the flag, and fired their shots on federal garrison. By the end of 1861, around a million armed men shook hands with each other in the two state stretches from Virginia to Missouri.
Indeed the North did win the Civil war with many of their advantages but the lives lost to help the African Americans gain freedom all went in vain. All the Northern efforts to gain a “new birth of freedom” went in useless. This was all due the Southerns, who passed laws and bills to limit African Americans’ freedom and the right of voting. This included the Black Codes, the Poll Taxes, the Literacy Tests, the Grandfather Clause, and the Jim Crow Laws, which stated, “separate but equal”. By the 1880s, the South had defeated the weakened Northern effort to help and African American and had re-enslaved the African American.
During the war, the Southern states used the slaves to support their armies in the field and to manage the home front. Lincoln justified the proclamation as a war measure intended to cripple the Confederates use of slaves in war. The book, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation: The End Of Slavery in America, says “No single official paper in American history changed the lives of as many Americans as Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. But no American document has been held up to greater suspicion” (Guelzo 12). When Lincoln first proposed the Proclamation to his cabinet members, they didn’t support it; Lincoln’s advisors believed it to be too radical.
Finally, Lincoln believed that transforming the dispute from a conflict to preserve the Union to a crusade against slavery would dissuade the threatening British and French from supporting the Confederacy. With its new stated purpose, the Civil War would now have huge societal repercussions. The largest and most complex issue of Reconstruction was how to go about admitting the Confederate states back into the Union. President Lincoln’s plans were quite lenient, accepting the seceded states back into the Union even if by vote only a minority of a state’s white males took an oath of loyalty to the United States. However, John Wilkes Booth assassinated him before any of his plans could go into action.
The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation led to the end of slavery, and is one of the most controversial documents in American history. Human slavery was the focus of political conflict in the United States from the 1830s to the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861. Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for presidency in 1860, personally abhorred slavery and was pledged to prevent it from spreading to western territories. At the same time he believed that the Constitution did not allow federal government to prohibit slavery in states where it already existed. The election of Lincoln led to the secession of eleven slave-holding states and the beginning of the civil war.
It was used to cripple the confederacy ‘s use of slaves in the war as well as accepting those slaves to fight for the Union. However, the Emancipation Proclamation was directed only to the Souther states in rebellion. After the war, Lincoln and the Republican party issued the Thirteenth Amendment as the Emancipation Proclamation had no constitutional validity once the war was over. The Thirteenth Amendment ensured that, “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude...shall exist within the United States” (“13th Amendment”). Although the Emancipation Proclamation lost its power, it did influence the citizens after the war to advocate and accept abolition for all slaves in both the North and South.