One was the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and the other was the Standard and Poor (S&P) Index. The DJIA book to market ratio’s ability of prediction is more precise for the years prior to 1960 while the S&P book to market ratio gives a predictive ability for the period after 1960. However, S&P’s relation is dramatically weaker than DJIA’s findings for the period before 1960 (Pontiff 1998, Page 141). A major reason for the book to market ratio’s ability to predict stock market returns is that book value acts as a proxy for future cash flows. We know that if we divide a cash flow proxy by the current market price, a variable is produced that can be correlated with future market returns.
Price elasticity of demand is defined as how demand changes as a result of a change in price. It can be said that if a reduction in price leads to an increase in demand then demand is relatively elastic. Elasticity is usually negative. There is an alternative scenario where demand will increase as price does so too. This happens only in the case of Giffen goods, where elasticity is positive.
Inflation in contrast, how speedy the average prices intensity is increases or changes above the period so the inflation rate define the annual percentage rate changes in the level of price is as measure by GDP deflator more over GDP deflator has a advantage on consumer price index because it isn’t only based on a fixed basket of goods and services. It’s a most effective inflation tool to identify the changes in consumer consumption and newly produced goods and service are reflected by this deflator. Consumer price index (CPI) is also measure the adjusting the economic data it can also be eliminate the effects of inflation, through dividing a nominal quantity by price index to state the real quantity in term. Most of the economists agreed high inflation is caused by the excess growth of money supply .According to M.Freidman’sdictimum said inflation is a monetary phenomena he developed a monetarism model which is on three bases:the quantity theory, the expectation augmented Phillips curve and Okun’s law. In this model he taught the real effect generate due to growth of money supply .Another important aspect of relationshi... ... middle of paper ... ...cy could be depreciated because export should be increases on that country while other country is on appreciating position they will pay lesser currency rate while import any commodities.
To understand the need for an inflation target it is important that we understand what the real costs of inflation are and why inflation must be controlled. The consensus view is that inflation, especially if it is unanticipated, has real economic costs (Snowdon and Vane, 2005). In terms of anticipated inflation it is believed that there are still welfare costs. These are shoe leather costs and menu costs (Snowdon and Vane, 2002). Shoe leather costs are prevalent as a result of the increase in time deposits, in an inflationary environment, so that the interest earned will partially offset the nominal costs of inflation.
Many feel that low inflation should be a main aim of monetary policy, while others (such as trade union activists) believe that a higher growth rate to stimulate jobs should be the main concern. In order to understand what inflation targeting is and how it affects us, it is important to first establish what, in fact, inflation is. Inflation can be defined as an increase in the general price level of goods and services. It is measured as the annual percent change in the prices of goods deemed necessary for life in that country. These goods are included in a "market basket" which changes infrequently, so this measure can reflect fluctuations in the price level as well as the purchasing power of the Rand.
Tversky et al. (1990) further showed that this overpricing is largely due to a phenomena known as scale compatibility, which involves certain biases when the response required by the subject is in the same units as the factors influencing the decision. Since the payoffs of the bets and the buy-out prices assigned to them are both monetary values, this leads people to give greater weight to the payoff value of the bets when asked to price them (a situation of compatibility) than when asked to choose between them (a situation of non-compatibility). The development of expertise in avoiding preference reversal, then, would have to involve the circumvention of the compatibility effect. One possible way in which this could occur would involve subjects consistently selecting either payoff or probability as the critical factor in both choice and pricing conditions.
Price elasticity is defined in our text as the change in relationship between a change in the quantity demanded and price. When price elasticity is greater than 1, it’s considered “somewhat elastic” so that when the price increases the revenue decreases. This is due to the quantity being changed so significantly it results in a lost in revenue. In a short period of time, this elasticity may not be detrimental but a wide market change could drive away customers and hurt the company. Cross price elasticity is a measure of changes in quantity demands.
To determine the elasticity of the supply or demand curves, we can use this simple equation: Elasticity = (% change in quantity / % change in price) If elasticity is greater than or equal to one, the curve is considered to be elastic. If it is less than one, the curve is said to be inelastic. As we mentioned previously, the demand curve is a negative slope, and if there is a large decrease in the quantity demanded with a small increase in price, the demand curve looks flatter, or more horizontal. This flatter curve means that the good or service in question is elastic. Meanwhile, inelastic demand is represented with a much more upright curve as quantity changes little with a large movement in price.
The budget line represents the levels of consumption for both periods according to some factors such as present and future income as well as the interest rate level and has a slope of –(1+r ). Before considering the effects of a change in the interest rates it is important to understand the first step of the consumption model. In the diagrams A and B below, we can understand that (I) the indifference curves, act on behalf of the equal levels of utility satisfaction derived from different mixtures of present and future consumption. That being said the point (W), which is identified a... ... middle of paper ... ...come worse off. That is due to the reason that an increase in the level of interest rate leads to a relatively smaller current consumption, since borrowing from the future is not the ideal solution because it has become more expensive than before.
The word "measure" means that elasticity results are reported as numbers, or elasticity coefficients. The word "responsiveness" means that there is a stimulus-reaction involved. Some change or stimulus causes people to react by changing their behavior, and elasticity measures the extent to which people react. The most common elasticity measurement is that of price elasticity of demand. It measures how much consumers respond in their buying decisions to a change in price.