The Egyptian gods interact more with each other than with the people. They interact with the people more on a supernatural level. Osiris, the Egyptian god of agriculture and afterlife, judges people when they die. Amon, the king of gods, is hidden inside the ruler (This “king of gods” title was not always so as the popularity of Aton, the sun-disk rose through the reformation of Pharaoh Akhenaton in 1369-1353 BC). Hebrew religion, being monotheistic, had only one all-powerful god.
Thus, the art and architecture of Ancient Egypt stemmed directly from their religion. Egyptian theology, with its deified pharaohs and strange animal-headed gods, was complicated, but the most important belief was that survival after death depended upon the preservation of the body. This belief would influence the architectural design of the tomb, where the corpse was ultimately sealed (Silverman:142, 1997). Immortality was only for privileged royal and priestly beings (Stierlin:54, 1983).This implies that their tombs would be somewhat prestigious and not just and ordinary burial site. At the day of resurrection the Ka or soul would re-enter the dead body; this meant that it must be there, intact, ready for that moment.
Second, the Egyptians Faith was an important characteristic of their religion. First, they believed that the Pharaoh was a god, and what he spoke became law. The Egyptians worshipped almost every form of life, the worshipped trees, water, animals, and even vegetables. The Egyptians also believed that a person had 2 souls, the ba and the ka, which left the body at death and then returned later to the body. The Egyptians believed that mummification make sure the ba and the ka would find the body when they returned to the body to transport it to the underworld.
From this the sun became their most important god Ra; he became their chief god and was the center of their culture. The pyramids, though tombs for the pharaohs are also monuments to Ra. He became associated with pharaohs, because it was believed that pharaohs were picked by Ra to rule over the land.
As for Egypt the lawgivers were the gods, ruling through the pharaoh. In Egypt the pharaohs were seen as living gods therefore the Egyptians worshipped their pharaohs as gods. In both civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt religion was implanted in the social and personal life of the people. Which they also build temples that they worshipped. Religious laws and duties were crucial to the day-to-day life of the people to their social spot.
The afterlife was an essential part of the Egyptian society, and embalming a dead body was a great, ceremonious task that citizens went through. The embalming process was designed to assist the dead in navigating the afterlife and finding peace. There was even a process called the “opening of the mouth”, that allowed the dead to speak and retain their bodily functions. The gods were the rulers of space and time, and the Pharaoh was believed to be a higher human himself. It was he (or she, in some cases) that talked to the gods and bridged their otherworldly bodies to the common folk.
Archaeological evidence of funerary customs show that religion was an integral part of Egyptian culture. The Pyramid Texts indicated that the Egyptians believed an individual’s soul had many aspects that continued after death, which consisted of the ba, akh and ka. The ba represents the individual’s alter ego which would travel outside the tomb, whereas the akh reflects the ‘intermediary between the living and the dead’. The ka was believed to be the individual’s twin in which their personality is represented. This strongly implicates that the ancient Egyptian civilisation believed in a spiral realm.
These two belief systems shared many characteristics, such as the importance of light and the presence of a central religious leader, but there were also several key differences in the development and worship practices of Atenism and early Judaism. For centuries, the ancient Egyptians worshipped a vast host of deities who they claimed controlled all natural phenomena and the underworld (Edgar et al. pg 22). The polytheistic religion of the Egyptians was incorporated into many of the most famous examples of Egyptian art and architecture. For instance, the mysterious deities of the Egyptians were immortalized in hieroglyphic drawings, and the Egyptians’ belief in an afterlife led them to construct some of the most recognizable monuments in the world.
Ancient Mesopotamia Mesopotamia, the land between the Tigris and Euphrates was home to the ancient civilizations of Sumer, Babylon, and Akkad. The Mesopotamian people were predominantly of polytheistic faith; the social construct of gods allowed them to develop meaning and order in their lives. Every aspect of life was dominated by the belief that submitting to the worship of gods would shield them from divine wrath. Cities were endowed with patron gods that were guardians and the duty of the ruler was to act upon their behalf. Ziggurats were built to honor the holiness of the gods and to appease them in hopes of attaining their blessings.
They believed it had been gifted from the god Horus himself, and to be used with care. The Pharaoh himself (and rarely, herself) were seen as gods. The Egyptians had vast beliefs in the idea of an afterlife, they took care to ensure proper measures were made to lead the dead to the afterlife in a sacred and organized manner. They would build pyramids out of stone blocks, placed in the form of a point, often to lead the spirit of the Pharaoh to the gods or afterlife. Eventually, the Egyptians began to use Hieroglyphics instead to ensure that the Pharaoh’s soul would make its way smoothly to the afterlife.