Egypt: A review

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This paper will answer the following ethical question: Does the United States or international community have a moral obligation to intervene using soft or smart power given that a democratically elected government was deposed harshly in Egypt? For the purposes of this paper, I will define soft and hard power using the Wilson’s framework: hard power is the ability to coerce an actor to do something you want them to do, because it pertains to your national interests, either through military intervention, economic sanctions, or coercive diplomacy. Nye defines soft power as the ability to get what you want through persuasion and attraction rather than coercion. I will examine my ethical question through the lens of cosmopolitanism and morality of state theory. I argue that the United States and the international community have an obligation to engage in what Wilson describes as smart power – or a combination of hard and soft powers. While I do not find that military intervention is warranted based on the evidence I provide, I do find that economic and diplomatic coercion is substantiated and permitted given the framework of cosmopolitanism. I will begin this paper by essential background information on the evolving Egyptian military, the uprising, and the ensuing deposition of democratically elected President Mohammad Morsi. Next, I will describe both theories and its applicability to my ethical question. Additionally, I will provide evidence that Egypt’s military overstepped its bounds and created a humanitarian crisis warranting limited international intervention, or soft power. I will then look at the Iran nuclear program to support my argument that smart and soft powers result in desired change. I will conclude ...

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... party or had Islamist leanings. Pro-Morsi supporters were targeted despite them freely expressing their political beliefs and arguably maintaining the integrity of democratic elections. Most recently, in April 2014, Egypt courts sentenced 683 protestors to death; the month prior 529 protestors were sentenced to death. Egypt has been engaging in a series of ruthless mass trials in an effort to quell unrest following their controversial deposition of Morsi.
Despite clear concerns with the way security forces conducted themselves in the aftermath of the ouster of democratically elected President Mohammad Morsi, I will examine and assess the military’s actions through two lenses: cosmopolitanism and morality of state theory. I will first introduce morality of state theories, then look at cosmopolitanism and apply them to the actions taken by Egypt’s armed forces.
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