Effects Of Poverty In India

750 Words3 Pages
India was under the control of European colonial powers, through trade and conquest. The Indian independence movement began with the creation of two movements: The Indian National Congress in 1885 and The Muslim League in 1905. Both groups wished to see India as an independent state which was realized in 1947. However, even though India benefited from the colonial rule, there was a negative side from this oppression too: India was trapped in poverty after decolonization, and is considered to be one of the largest concentrations of poor people in the world. Today, there are more than 1.1 billion that continue to live below the poverty line of $1.25. Poverty in India remains incredibly high and amounts around 300 million, being the most dominant in the rural areas, where almost 77% of the Indian poor live. Some say that poverty takes a new definition when talking about India and according to the World Bank, “in India, poverty is officially linked to a nutritional baseline measured in calories (food-energy method).” One of the major characteristics of underdevelopment and poverty is overpopulation and is estimated to be around 1.27 billion. In 1970, former prime minister of India Indira Gandhi tried to implement a forced sterilization program in the early 1970s, which failed. This program intended to prevent the reproduction and multiplication of members of the population and to lower India’s ever increasing population. It is considered to be a gross violation of human rights because it used propaganda and monetary incentives to convince citizens to get sterilized, and agreed to give people who agreed land, housing, money or loans. Another major feature of poverty in India is famine, from which some of them were severe enough to ... ... middle of paper ... ... by extensive regulation, protectionism, and public ownership of large monopolies, pervasive corruption and slow growth. During the first years of independence, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India, immediately launched a number of economic reforms where the government controlled the public sector and directed investment into the main public sector industries. Under Nehru’s leadership, the government attempted to develop India by embarking on agricultural restructuring and rapid industrialization, and his government directed the founding of many institutions of higher learning, Today, he is admired for creating a system which provides universal primary education. In addition to the economic reforms, he launched many policies, remarkably the foreign policy of non-alignment during the Cold War where he projected India as a regional power in South Asia.
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