Moreover, despite coral surviving higher sea temperatures in the past, there are many other factors contributing to coral bleaching. Coral recovery depends on how often bleaching events occur and global warming increases this and worsens conditions for reproduction which is essential to survival. Coral bleaching due to global warming is more concerning than many people
This implies that different life forms are affected in one way or the other given the effect of temperature on life. Different species of flora and fauna have and continue to suffer the effect of climatic changes. Coral reef is one of seawater features that have been affected by climatic changes. This has led to destruction through coral bleaching and increased mortality, especially due to the warming of the sea that causes an increase in sea water levels (Bakerl, Glynn & Riegl, 2008). An increase in global temperature also increases ocean acidification (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007).
The effect of CO2 and global warming on coral reefs Introduction: Coral reefs are one of the most productive and biodiverse ecosystems on the planet, they need constant climatic conditions to function as they are very vulnerable habitats. They cover vast tropical marine habitats (as can be seen in figure 1) however they are largely changing due to increases in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and the effects of global warming. As a result lots of data has been collected on the past extent of coral reefs (so we can use this to see how they may be effected in the future), their current status and predicting future trends in how they may change. Some of the papers that cover this are: Hughes et al (2003), Hoegh-Guldberg (1999), Hoegh-Guldberg
Increased exposure to UV rays is a direct result of a thinning o-zone caused by human emissions; Ocean temperatures are rising as a result of these same emissions as well. The heat trapped in our atmosphere due to CO^2 emissions contributes to the increase in global ocean temperatures. With that being said, why does it matter that coral reefs are
Carbon dynamics and anthropogenic influences are important in understanding and predicting current and future ecological responses to climate change. Although the number of ecologic impacts globally is an enormous amount, this article focuses on climate change on tropical freshwater fish, land use, and disease. Climate Change on Tropical Freshwater Fish As the climate continues to experience increased concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting in higher temperatures, many ecosystems are impacted globally. The raising temperature is predicted to increase precipitation along the equator the most, while temperature spikes will be the greatest at the northern and southern tips of the world. Two critical variables linking freshwater fish to climate are annual water temperature and annual rate of discharge.
After scientists took notice, other instances were noticed around the world such as in Japan, the Indo-Pacific, and around the United States in areas such as California, and near Florida. The main cause of coral bleaching is pollution. Large companies, and regular citizens that are dumping their waste in the oceans are a major contributor towards global warming. Global warming is the main cause of bleaching due to the increasing temperature in waters, this increase in temperature cause the reefs a lot of stress. The second largest factor is climate change.
Coral bleaching and ocean acidification due to warming also have the potential to affect tourism, fisheries and agriculture, and the ability of the corals to regenerate. Sovereignty claims over natural resources and territory could increase, as maritime zones shrink due to the ambulatory nature of baselines. The problem of climate change refugees and resettlement also pose challenges. Competition for scarce marine and natural resources could intensify, leaving countries like RMI - in dire straits. Loss of maritime zones, domestic, regional and international security, population migration and resettlement are issues closely tied to the impacts from a changing climate.
These coastal wetlands are especially vulnerable to direct, large-scale impacts of climate change, primarily because of their sensitivity to sea-level rise. Observational records indicate that sea level has already risen between 10 and 25 cm globally over the past 100 years. In addition, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has projected a sea-level rise of 15-95 cm as a consequence of global warming. Sea-level rise will also increase the depth of coastal waters and increase inland and upstream salinity intrusion, both of which affect fresh and brackish water wetlands. Sea-level rise has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surges, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating.
Coral bleaching is a global issue as earth’s sea temperatures continue to rise. Reefs located along the equator, such as the Belize Barrier Reef, the Florida Reef, the Hawaii Coral Reefs and Great Barrier Reef in Australia are all affected by the phenomenon. Organizations like the Coral Watch and Save the Reef have directed their actions to the monitoring and prese... ... middle of paper ... ...ral die over the next century. Coral reefs are a highly sensitive ecosystem. Even the slightest changes in the environment, such as pH fluxes and temperature rises, result in catastrophic events including coral bleaching.
The following diagram represents the effect of greenhouse gas emissions on the oceans causing increased CO2, decreased pH, sea level rise, storm frequency and potential upwelling. Due to the rapid changes in comparison to previous years, fish are becoming prone to predator attacks and are having difficulty reproducing due to higher acidity levels. Because of increase greenhouse gas emissions carbon dioxide absorbed within the Earth’s atmosphere this excess CO2 prevents heat from escaping the planet, this process is known as the ‘greenhouse’ effect which is the cause of global warming. upwelling is uncertain. 3.2 Temperature change and Rising Sea levels... ... middle of paper ... ... many of these species are more vulnerable to increased fishing pressure than climate change (Graham et al.