However as suggested by early rational choice theorist Becarria, Crime is the outcome of choice; a calculated process of weighing up the costs against the benefits in order to maximise pleasure and minimise pain (Bernard et al. 2010). Given that specific crimes are committed with specific purposes, it makes little sense to construct broad categories of crime (Pateboster 2001). Each crime is so intricate and distinct we need to consider the offenders perspective, to understand the state of mind and play that underpins each particular offence. Rape and drunk driving, are profound examples of how different crimes compared to each other and within themselves have vastly different motives.
Data has suggested that to some degree crime is inherited, and that genes likely contribute to certain traits that are conducive to crime (Ellis & Walsh, 1997) Gene theory suggest that some genes could evolve that predispose an individual to take advantage of the unselfish cooperative behavior of others (Badcock, 1986) Heart rates were also said to have a bearing on criminal dispositions. There are studies that found lower resting heart rates to be associated with a greater crime rate. There was an additional finding that the prefrontal lobes may not work correctly in the brain of criminally predisposed individuals (Rowe, 2002) Gottfredson and Hirschi (1990) discovered that individual differences in self control predispose some people to criminal activity. These aforementioned facts point to how individual traits have a bearing on the commission of crime. Although there has been acknowledgement that individuals may have a biological predisposition to become criminals; nonetheless, some may still engage in very little criminal activity if they are raised in loving, supportive family environments.
Nevertheless, social control theory stresses the idea that people in a society are likely to commit delinquent or criminal acts when the forces restraining such actions a... ... middle of paper ... ...erica have largely implemented these practices as viable methods to deter crime. The result may have in part produced the overwhelming rates of incarceration and post-incarceration recidivism. While the correlative relationship amongst the four variables may account for some crimes, it is hard to believe that all four variables can account for all crimes. Presumably, those who commit financial crimes on the scale of Bernie Maddoff are often strongly attached to authority figures, committed to normative aspirations, and deeply involved and committed to conventional behavior for most of their lives. Nevertheless, these crimes still occur.
( p 407 Dabney, p 407), and based on it 's context, we might determine its consequences : trus we 'll be able to determine a possible punishment for it, and/ or the prevension for the future crimes. “SOME THEORIES focus on either crime or criminal behavior, two rather differents fenomena that are often treated, as they were identical.” ( Criminological theory , p 225) Crime is directly related to our siciety, and it 's a social event. I would say that principal abstruseness ( vagueness) in regard to a crime and it 's theoretical explaination, is it 's definition. If reserchers will be able correctly defyne the type of crime, they will be likely to give it 's an explaination, and will try to resolve it, by the method of application, of a correspondent type of theory. If the definition will be wrongly
Conflict theorists relate deviance to capitalism pointing the relationship between race, ethnicity, and crime. 2) Please explain deviance and discuss the relationship between race and deviance as it relates to crime and criminal behavior. Please consider differences in perception among groups or people who define persons as deviant. · Deviance is any behavior that departs from societal of group norms. (Ex: criminal behavior; violations of significant social norms) These significant norms are those that are highly important to either most members in a society or to the members wit... ... middle of paper ... ...s another person would), and game stage (children learn to engage in more sophisticated role taking.
This theory offers the confidence that if we change the environment, then crime rate may change (Bernard et al., 2010, p. 94). Social disorganization and economic situations may affect crime and delinquency. Many researchers have done extensive research on a different aspect of socio-economic situations. Some suggested that lack of proper education, economic stability, transportation and another benefit somehow responsible for the crime. The absence of good marketing condition may lead individuals to search for unlawful marketing.
Karl Marx said that crime is the product of unjust and alienating social conditions. According to the Social Conflict theory crime is the result of class conflict. All of the criminal activities have political meanings behind them. The Social Conflict theory is more interested in groups rather than individuals. It is usually the power groups that tend to win the conflicts.
According to this aspect the act which if treated as a crime reduces the social cost should be treated as a crime. Law... ... middle of paper ... ...n the case of Bacchan Singh, it was given not to restore the interest of the plaintiff but to show what punishment should a person have to for committing a crime with that much level of seriousness. An Economic theory of Criminal Law The economic theory of criminal law provides us with a predictive model of criminal behavior. The first question which comes into our minds what is the need of criminal law in a society is civil law not enough to deal with the crimes. Why Criminal Law?
Routine Activity Theory focuses on situations of crime. This theory was used by Cohen and Felson (1979) to explain the rising crime rates in the United States. Cohen and Felson explained that crime rates could vary without actual changed in the number of potential offenders or offender motivation. The theory has three assumptions; a likely offender, a suitable target, and the absence of a guardian. A likely offender includes anyone with an inclination to commit a crime (Felson, 1983).
He used economic explanations were used by critical criminology to analyze social behavior by arguing that social and economic inequalities were the main reason behind criminal behavior (Henry & Lainer, 1998). This view reduces the focus on individual criminals and elaborates that the existing crime is as a result of the capitalist system. Just like the conflict school of thought, it asserts that law is biased since it favors the ruling or the upper class and that the legal system that governs the state is meant to maintain the status quo of the ruling class. Critical criminologist are of the view that political, corporate and environmental crime are not only underreported but also inadequately punished by the existing criminal legal system. Conflict criminology strives to locate the root cause of crime and tries to analyze how status and class inequality influences the justice system.