(2005) A source of alpha amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis, Bioresour. Technol. 96:1201–1204. 9. Pandey, A., Nigam, P., Soccol, C.R., Soccol, V.T., Singh, D., Mohan, R. (2000).
One of the research interests involves the development of novel treatments against the multi-drug resistant property of ABC transporters in treating relevant human diseases such as cystic fibrosis and Tangier disease (Stefková et al., 2004). With any of such novel applications, a substantial knowledge on sequence motifs in terms of their functional significance is required. In this essay, the discussion is limited to protein sequence signatures in nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of ABC transporters relating to substrate translocation. It will be seen that the protein sequence motifs perform similar function across species, and any mutation can affect its overall function. However, it should also be noted that these motifs can result in slightly different mechanism in different species, and that they can perform their function at certain domains of the protein.
Biotechnology Techniques 9, 873-878. Hahn, S.K., Chang, Y.K., Kim, B.S. and Chang, H.N. (1994) Optimization of microbial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) recover using dispersions of sodium hypochlorite solution and chloroform. Biotechnol Bioeng 44, 256-261.
Another important aspect of liposome delivery is that they can be conjugated with a number of small molecules and ligands for increased cell targeting, cellular penetration and liposome fusion. Such small molecules and ligands include monoclonal antibodies, hormones, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEP) , vitamin E, cholesterol, polyethylenimine (PEI), and cell penetration proteins (CPPs) [2-4]. However, cationic liposomes recently have been observed to induce cytotoxicity in cells and uptake differently depending on cell differentiation, and further efforts are being made to make neutral liposomes to decrease toxicity . Nanoparticles offer another major avenue for delivery of siRNA into the cell. With sizes ranging from 5 nm-200 nm, nanoparticles are small enough to access cell receptors yet large enough to be retained by the body and evade RES elimination, allowing for a prolonged residence time .
7. Wang, Liang, et. al., Flagellar regeneration requires cytoplasmic microtubule depolymerization and kinesin-13. (2013). Journal of Cell Science 126, 1531-1540.
GPI precursor is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and then is covalently attached as a posttranslational modification to the C-terminal of a protein that express a GPI attachment signal sequence . This procedure (GPI-anchor attachment) leads to stable association of the target proteins with the membrane [16, 36]. We produced a cell line that stably express ECD HER2-GPI anchored protein on cell surface. Flow cytometry and Immunoflourescent microscopy assays showed that the cell surface expression of HER2 ECD is remarkable. This cell line can frequently be used in biophysical and structural studies of binding anti HER2 agents.
It is not the direct influence of glucose that triggers a response in the system, but the presence of the products of the enzymatic reaction. Usually, pH-sensitive polymers are used in order to obtain glucose sensitive drug delivery systems which will disassembly or solubilize in acidic conditions, causing the release of the drug. Glucose-sensitive porous membranes with grafted PAAc gates and GOx were prepared by grafting PAAc and immobilizing GOx onto porous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes . The grafted PAAc provides pH-sen... ... middle of paper ... ...a method for making highly targeted liposomes using triggered release. ACS Nano 2011;5:2162–75.
In rhII/rhIR system, RhII synthesizes N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (BHL), which then binds with RhIR, leading to expression of cognate promoters (de Kievit et al., 1999). Pseudomonas based biosensors have been constructed by mutating auto inducer synthase gene (lasI or rhII), and expressing reporter such as lacZ from QS responsive promoter. P. aeruginosa PAO1 M71LZ strain has been used to detect long chain AHL such as C10-oxo- and C12-oxo-AHL. M71LZ is a lasI deletion mutant, and contains chromosomally integrated fusion of rsaL promoter and lacZ (Anbazhagan et al., 2012). Studies have demonstrated that LasI/LasR QS system directly regulates expression of rsaL, making this system a suitable biosensor (de Kievit et al., 1999).
Immobilization of enzymes is one of promising methods in enzymes performances enhancement, such as stability, recovery, and reusability. However, investigation of suitable solid support in enzyme immobilization is still the one of problems to prevent the reduction of enzymes activity. Polyethersulfone (PES) and aminated PES (PES-NH2) as novel materials for the immobilization were successfully synthesized. Structure of synthesized polymers were characterized by NMR, FTIR, and MALDI-TOF. The membranes based on PES and PES-NH2 with various pore sizes (from 10 to 600 nm) was fabricated to be applied as bioreactor to increase the immobilized lipase performances.
Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: Bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 101, 1150-1162. VIAMAJALA, S., PEYTON, B. M. & PETERSEN, J. N. 2003. Modeling chromate reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Development of a novel dual-enzyme kinetic model.