Hegel's claim that self-consciousness realizes itself in ethical life is set up with the understanding that un-reactive immersion in the social community is no longer possible for modern human beings in his own time. In Hegel's view, ethical life is created within the culture and practices of the social community of an individual. “Ethical life is a system of norms and mores belonging to a social body, made up of spheres of social interaction and interdependence in which all individuals are embedded.” (Philosophy of Right, III: Ethical Life.) More importantly, the individual must follow that ethical life, and therefore contribute to the society himself. Ethical life is a stage of self consciousness towards which the individual of Hegel’s time is seen by Hegel to be living within, and to be constructing throughout his life.
Social entities (such as institutions) are conventional and open-ended constructions, the applications of which is a matter of judgment, not of discovery. The terms in which these social entities are constructed are the beliefs, expectations and desires, and the corresponding actions of individual people. The relation between the social and the individual 'levels' differs fundamentally from that between, say, the cellular and the molecular in biology. Third, I claim that methodological individualism does not amount to a reduction of social science to psychology; rather, the science of psychology should be divided. Intentional psychology forms in tandom with the analysis of social institutions, unitary psycho-social science; cognitive psychology tries to explain how the brain works and especially how the intentional stance is applicable to human behavior.
A... ... middle of paper ... ...e from other disciplines. Thus, sociology cannot disconnect itself from the collective general phenomena. To conclude , ‘a social fact is any way of acting whether fixed or not capable of exerting over the individual on external constraints or which is general over the whole of a given society whilst having an existence of its own independent of its individual manifestations (p26)” which makes us derive the special features of sociology. It means that the nature of acting is not a stable one but has control over the person who adopts it, presents generalized conclusions in the form of laws that is imposed on the society that functions in an independent way to build and develop a good society. Work Cited Durkheim, Emile.
Hegel’s principles were also founded on historicism; in order to fully understand any aspect of life, one must look past all superficial observations and understand the aspects' history and background.. Hegel’s philosophies attempted to tie in these basic fundamentals with mankind’s unending pursuit for the absolute truth to form a single unified system. Epistemology Hegel was influenced by developing biological fundamentals in that organisms were interdependent upon each other and their environment making them all part of a hierarchy in life. He related this to society and human reason by believing that nothing could function in isolation and that everything and everyone was part of a larger whole: the Nation-State. He asserted that an individual’s moral ideas would be identical to that of the Nation-State. Hegel believed in the assimilation of one’s moral ideas and social ethics to the government’s because it incorporated all political, economic, and social aspects of an individual’s culture.
Major Theories Regarding the Nature of Personal and Social Identity Richard Jenkins said that ‘Without social identity, there is in fact, no Society’. Sociologists see identity as related to the society in which people live. They believe that our identity is formed against a social background, which tries to make social interaction meaningful, understandable and organised by categorising people in order of the group they belong to. Because we are categorised in such a way, we become recognisable as people such as mothers, daughters, students etc. The nature of identity is seen as a social phenomenon and a key factor of our social lives because our identities are also based on where we work, live and the community etc.
Structure is defined as the designed arrangements which impacts or limits the decisions and opportunities available. Agency is referred as the capability of individuals to act by themselves and make their own choices free of influence (Duffy and Mandell, 2011: 357). The debate between structure and agency can be looked at as an issue of socialization against self-rule in determining if people work as a free agent or if they work in a manner that is managed by social structure. Kosut and Moore (2010) argue that the body “is the ultimate location of the division in sociology between structure and agency” (Kosut and Moore, 2010: 2). They use numerous theories and the work of other sociologists to provide evidence for their argument for the idea of the body and how it can be used in everyday society.
A “state of nature” has to exist only in order to justify the institutional arrangements of a group of people, whether it is real or not. While English philosopher Thomas Hobbes believed in a state of nature, his observations of the human condition
Thus, there is no valid basis of valuing the environment for its mere existence. Instead all environmental value is derived from what the environment can explicitly do for its populace. Works Cited Festenstein, Matthew, and Michael Kenny. Political ideologies: a reader and guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
All knowledge arrives our experience and experience are influenced by our surrounding. Although our micro and macro influence may be controlled, our exo sphere is easily influenced as it is controlled by society. What is and is NOT worth describing as KNOWLEDGE? Although knowledge is not a living breathing person, it is a subjective version of a living human. Just as there is a diversity of human across the globe, there is a diversity within knowledge itself, therefore knowledge cannot be categorized into right and wrong knowledge externally.
Prominent anthropologist, Michael Carrithers (1992, 18), through the influence of structural-functionalist, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown’s analogy of seashells, stipulates that cultures are formed through social structure, which are institutions that hold the culture together from the inside. This can be seen through the distinctive, acephalous society of the Nuer, whose inhabitants reside in the African region of Sudan. Although there is no hierarchical leadership system within ... ... middle of paper ... ...eract with other people, or with other forms of social infrastructure, in order to complete these tasks. That is, in in essence, the nature of culture. It is a system of relationships within, between and beneath cultures, which demonstrate the interconnectedness of culture.