According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) (2000) eating disorders are characterized by a disturbance in eating behavior, which can be eating too much, eating too little, or simply just eating in an unhealthy way. The two major categories of eating disorders are Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, but there is also a category for eating disorders that do not fully meet the diagnostic criteria for either anorexia or bulimia, which is termed Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. The diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (anorexia) includes a refusal to maintain a healthy body weight at or above 85% of the expected weight for age and height, having an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted view of one’s own body shape and weight, and in postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea. The diagnostic criteria for Bulimia Nervosa (bulimia) includes recurring binge-eating behavior that is characterized by eating a larger amount than an average person would eat in a specific amount of time, such as 2 hours; and a lack of control over eating habits during this time. Other diagnostic criteria included in the DSM-IV-TR (2000) are engaging in compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain, through vomiting, exercising, or the use of laxatives.
Although many of the patients included in the study suffered from different types of abuse leading to their eating disorder, the study also showed that those that suffered childhood emotional abuse tended to have more severe eating habits than the others (Groleau, Steiger, Bruce, Israel, Sycz, Ouellette & Badawi, 2011). The study relays that when a child suffers from emotional damage, it can lead into an altered view of oneself into adulthood. The study reports that, “childhood emotional abuse may influence severity of eating symptoms, perhaps by impacting individuals’ self-esteem and ... ... middle of paper ... ...orer, D., Keel, P., Jackson, S., & Manzo, M. (2006). Drug abuse with women with eating disorders. In International Journal of Eating Disorders (5th ed., Vol.
BULIMIA NERVOSA 307.51 (F50.2) Introduction Individuals diagnosed with bulimia nervosa undertake frequent binge eating, followed by expelling the food, typically by inducing vomiting, but also through exercising and the use of laxative agents, diuretics, and enemas (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The binge eating occurrences are often prompted by a negative perception of one’s body image, temporarily alleviated by the binge eating episode. Since the individual with bulimia nervosa is overanxious about body weight, purging of the food is viewed as a necessity. This is in contrast to binge eating disorder, which does not involve the purging of food after an excess of food consumption (Bulik et al., 2012). Furthermore, although bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are similar in some respects, the two are in no way identical eating disorders.
This review summarizes the most current research in the field on the study of the increase in cases of eating disorders more specifically anorexia within the middle-aged female population and what the contributing reasons maybe. Anorexia will be the focal point of eating disorders discussed as that was the eating disorder used in the majority of the studies utilized for the purpose of this review. The female gender is more often linked, as being at risk for eating disorders and this statistic does not change demographically within the aging population with occurrences and/or reoccurrence of eating disorders. Females represent about 90% of eating disorder diagnosis (Patrick, & Stahl, 2009). The percentage of men, including a new sub-category on the brink of being studied, homosexuals who suffer eatin... ... middle of paper ... ...of General Psychology, 136 (1), 5-16.
The Role of Stress in the Development of Bulimia During the past few decades, Western culture has witnessed an enormous explosion in the number of eating disorders reported among young women. One such type of eating disorder is Butimia Nervosa. According to the DSM-IV criteria it is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, in which the person experiences a feeling of "loss of control",and recurrent compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain. Both of these behaviors occur, on average, at least twice a week for three months. In addition, self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight.
(2013). Binge eating disorder: The next generation of research. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 46, 193-207. http://ntserver1.wsulibs.wsu.edu:2057/doi/10.1002/eat.22089/full Tanofsky, M. K., Goossens, L., Eddy, K.T., Ringham, R., Goldschmidt, A., Yanovski, S. Z., …Yanovski, J.A. (2007).
To someone with an eating disorder, their illness is a means of incorporating control into their lives. Anorexia Nervosa, a disorder of self- starvation, manifests itself in a complete refusal of food and can cause psychological, endocrine, and gynecological problems. An anorexic person will turn to obsessive dieting and starvation as a way to control not only their weight, but also their feelings and actions regarding the emotions attached (Definition of Anorexia Nervosa 1). Some physiological characteristics of Anorexia Nervo... ... middle of paper ... ...abuse. Clinical depression can also lead to an eating disorder.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 43(2), 112-122. Shannon, L. R. (2004). Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males. Professional School Counseling, 8(1), 98. Thompson-Brenner, H., Boisseau, C. L. & Satir, D. A.
The Physiology and Psychology of Bulimia Bulimia is a disorder centered around an individual’s obsession with food and weight. This obsession involves eating large quantities of food, feeling guilty about the food consumption, and taking drastic measures to prevent caloric/fat absorption. Measures vary with each individual and include one or all of the following: forced vomiting, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, or excessive exercise. This disease affects one to three percent of adolescent and young women in the United States, and bulimic behaviors are displayed by ten to twenty percent of adolescent and young women in the United States (http://dcs.engr.widener.edu/galla/gal la.htm). In the studies of bulimia nervosa there is a continuing debate concerning the underlying cause of the disease - whether it is physiological or psychological.
(1997). Childhood Sexual Abuse and Precursors of Binge Eating in an Adolescent Female Population. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 21, 23 - 30 Zlotnick, Caron, et al. (1996). The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Eating Pathology.