Eastern Europe in 2000

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Eastern Europe in 2000 Chechnya is home for about one million Chechens, who call themselves Nachtschi. After Chechnya had lost its independence in the Caucasian War (1817 -- 1864) it became part of the Russian Empire and was later part of the Soviet Union. Before the decline of the Soviet Union in 1991, Chechnya declared its independence on November 27, 1990. However, after President Boris Yeltsin took over leadership of the newly founded Russian Federation, Russian Forces penetrated Chechnya in November 1991 and started to bomb its cities. The conflict lasted for more than three years and was reopened on October 2, 1999, when Russian troops invaded the country again. This paper is to describe Chechnya and its population, the development of the conflicts in the 1990's, and relevance to global issues. It is further intended to outline the crimes against humanity, committed by Russian troops, as reported by the United Nations. Chechnya is a republic in the eastern part of North Caucasia, southwestern Russia, with borders to the republic of Dagestan to the northeast and east, Georgia to the south, and the republic of Ingushetia to the west. Chechnya is one of the twenty-one republics of the Russian Federation. It was part of the joint Chechen-Ingush autonomous republic of the Soviet Union from 1936 until 1991. Even though Chechnya declared its independence in 1991 the Russian government refused to recognize Chechnya's it, and in December 1994 Russian troops invaded the republic. Fighting between Russian and Chechen forces, which continued until August 1996, resulted in more than 40,000 deaths and caused the displacement of hundreds of thousands of people. The total land area of Chechnya is about 15,000 sq km. The republic li... ... middle of paper ... ...d Nations in an open letter, stating: "For example, it was alleged that during the air raids on 27 September, the Russian military bombed a school and housing estates in the town of Staraya Sunzha, a suburb in the north of Grozny: 21 civilians were reportedly killed and 44 wounded. Members of the Russian Human Rights Center "Memorial" who interviewed internally displaced people in Ingushetia in October, reported that during this attack, carried out by four Russian warplanes. A residential quarter was bombed and two houses were completely demolished. At least six people were killed in a garage basement: a family, which included a pregnant woman and two children, a girl of three and a boy of one year and a half." The conflict seems to continue to result in severe civilian casualties, being marked by brutality and disobedience of international humanitarian standards.

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