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As a penalty, the children worked an 8-hour day at trades and attended school for another 4 hours. Records reveal that many of them had not committed any criminal act, and a number of juvenile delinquents could be categorized as committing status offenders (Shepherd). Juveniles were susceptible to court hearings that were informal, and the ideology was based on the principle that judges will act as a parental guide, and provide an approach to guide children. In addition, another response to the growing concern of youth delinquency was with the establishment of the first juvenile court system created in Cook County, Chicago. This act was unique, since it attempted to reduce the stigma of juvenile crime and create a new approach for the process of offenders.
IMPACT OF RISK/NEEDS ASSESSMENT ON JUVENILE PROBATION OFFICERS' DECISION MAKING: Importance of Implementation. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1-29. Wolcott, D. (2003, January 4). Juvenile Justice before Juvenile: Court,Cops,Courts,and Kids inTurn-of-the-CenturyDetroit. Social Science History, 27(1), 109-136.
The Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood in History and Society: America. Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.faqs.org/childhood/Gr-Im/History-of-Childhood.html History of Juvenile Justice in America (2014). Retrieved March 29, 2014, from http://www.djs.state.md.us/history-us.asp Siegel, L. & Welsh, B. (2012). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, practice, and law.
(Watson, 2009) References Henry B. (2000) “Juvenile Delinquency and the Schools”, University of Chicago Press. Tappan W. (2003) “Juvenile Delinquency,” McGraw-Hill. Rosenquist, M. (2000) “Delinquency in Three Cultures,” University of Texas Press. Katner D.(2006) “The Mental Health Paradigm and the Macarthur Study: Emerging Issues Challenging the Competence of Juveniles in Delinquency Systems,” Journal of Law and Medicine.
Zigler, Edward, and Cara Taussig. (1992)"Early Childhood Intervention.” American Psychologist 47.8 997-1007. Zigler, Edward. (1994)"Early Intervention to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency.” Harvard Mental Health Letter 11.3 5-8. Other references: www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/ch07.pdf.lwv.org/jj/causes.htm www.filthylucre.com/what-causes-juvenile-delinquencywww.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal.../juvenile.../preventionwww.preventdelinquency.org/ www.delinquencyprevention.org/familyimpactseminars.org/doc.asp?d=s_wifis04c03.pdfezinearticles.com/?Preventing-Juvenile-Delinquency&id=4374733
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, (NCJ-179065), 1-14. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED440196.pdf Thornton, T. N., Craft, C. A., Dahlberg, L. L., Lynch, B.S., Baer, K. (2000). Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. 1-223.