It suggests that modern humans are the product of speciation during the late Pleistocene in Africa. Homo sapiens eventually migrated out of Africa to Eurasia, and replaced all other human populations, without interbreeding. Some of the replaced populations are believe to be the Neanderthals and the Homo erectus. The second theory proposes that modern human evolution happened trough emigration, this is known as the multiregional evolution model. This model assumes that modern humans have an ancient rather than a recent African origin.
According to Relethford, Hominin is a tribe that comprises of humans and their closest ancestor. Hominin family has shown some resemblances with the evidences collected from fossil records as well as the evolutionary processes to the mordern humans. This article will try to describe the evolution of homonin tribe from the time period of Homo habilis to Mordern Homo sapiens. It will emphasis on the cranial capacity “skull proportions”, tools used and the cultural behavior. Homo habilis species was first found in East Africa at the Olduvai George site, approximately 1.9- 1.4 million years ago (Spoor et al.
It is suggested that Neanderthals traveled to areas in Europe, India, and Asia from parts of Africa. This detached hominid group diverged into Neanderthal man over thousands of years while residing in the northwest India-Afghanistan region (Weckler 1954). Homo neanderthalensis dispersed much earlier than our own species had, which continued to occupy Africa for quite some time and eventually became confined to this region because of barriers such as massive lakes and highly elevate... ... middle of paper ... ... of Modern Humans in Eurasia. Nature 439: 931-934. Niewoehner, W. 2000.
How humans spread around the world is still one of the mysteries in the history of mankind. Mitochondrial DNA has been a crucial line of experimental evidence in developing the current understanding of our genetic history. It has shed significant light in determining the population patterns and human migrations around the world. Studies of mitochondrial DNA have provided new insights in the way humans spread around the globe throughout time. Studies have suggested two major routes from East Africa through which humans exited Africa and colonized the globe.
Three incomplete skulls of Homo sapiens were discovered in 1997. Bruce Bower’s article “African Legacy: Fossils plug gap in human origins” discusses the fossils. These findings are important because according to the discoverers, they are the oldest known fossils of modern people. The skulls were found in Herto, Ethiopian located in eastern Africa. The fossils are dated between 154,000 and 160,000 years ago.i The fossils were dated radioisotopically.ii Since the fossils are the oldest known fossils of modern people, it is probable that these hominids represent the immediate ancestors of humans that are anatomically modern.
Jackendoff, Ray. 1999. Some possible stages in the evolution of the language capacity, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3.272-79. Marcus, Gary F. 2004"Anthropology: On the Origins of Human Language." Scienceweek.com.
Microscopy Research and Technique 59.5: 352-72. Print. Donoghue, Philip Conrad James, Ivan James Sansom, and Jason Philip Downs. 2006 "Early Evolution of Vertebrate Skeletal Tissues and Cellular Interactions, and the Canalization of Skeletal Development." Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 306B.3: 278-94.
Retrieved October 13, 2011, from Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History: http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/genetics/skin-color the American Anthropological Association. (2011). Race: Are We So Different ? Retrieved October 6, 2011, from http://understandingrace.org
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Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates, 2014. Print. Kmita M, Duboule D. Organizing axes in time and space; 25 years of colinear tinkering. Science.2003;301(5631):331–33 Mannaert A A PCR survey for posterior Hox genes in amphibians. Mol Phylogenet Evol.