The origin of modern humans is one of the most widely debated concerns in the area of paleoanthropology. Ever since the discovery of the Neanderthal in the mid 1800’s, scientists such as Charles Darwin and many others have been overly curious about the similarity of man to certain great apes and how over long periods of time have evolved from different archaic forms of humans up to today’s homo sapiens. There are two major theories that encompass how modern humans may have evolved from the various groups of hominids that existed in the Old World. These two theories are the Multiregional origin theory and the “Out of Africa” origin theory. I will first introduce the background and logic behind the two theories, and then I will argue, with supporting genetic evidence, why the “Out of Africa” theory is currently the most widely accepted in the field.
The population of Homo antecessor that remained in Africa evolved into Homo sapiens. Another possibility is that Homo antecessor is ancestral to both Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. The Neanderthal was not human. Genetic evidence from a comparison of human and Neanderthal mitochondria shows that while chimpanzee and human lineage's diverged four million years ago, the Neanderthals diverged over 550,000 to 690,000 years ago. Human trunk and limb bones of Homo antecessor, recovered from the Ran Doling site, in the Sierra de Atapuerca have been dated at about 780,000 old and are said to represent the last common ancestor for Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.
The fossils are dated between 154,000 and 160,000 years ago.i The fossils were dated radioisotopically.ii Since the fossils are the oldest known fossils of modern people, it is probable that these hominids represent the immediate ancestors of humans that are anatomically modern. Tim D. White’s (et al) article “Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia” describes the discovery of the Herto fossils and the research of the artifacts in great detail. The new discoveries raise many questions about the origin of modern man. Tim D. White, the project’s director claims that the Herto fossils prove that... ... middle of paper ... ...ww.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v423/n6941/ful/nature01670_fs.html vii White, T.D. et al.
The origin of modern humans is a matter of debate. There are two different theories regarding the origin of modern humans or Homo sapiens. The first and primary theory states modern humans emerged in one place and from a single origin. This theory is known as the Recent African Origin Model. It suggests that modern humans are the product of speciation during the late Pleistocene in Africa.
As fossil evidence has shown, we see that all pre-human forms, from Proconsul to Australopithecines, have resided in parts of Africa. We don’t see any movement out of Africa until the appearance of the Homo erectus fossils. These fossils have been found not only in Africa, but have also been found in parts of Europe and Asia. This is when scientists begin to disagree on how these pre-modern humans spread from Africa to other continents. Some scientists believe in the hypothesis known as the Multiregional Theory.
The origin of modern humans has been debated for years. On either side of the debate lies the multi-regional theory, and the Out of Africa theory. The multi-regional theory states that Homo erectus left Africa, and after separating into different regions, collectively evolved into the modern humans we see today. The Out of Africa theory states that modern humans evolved in Africa, and then migrated to different regions. In this theory, it is believed that modern humans replaced all other descendants of Homo erectus.
A skull of 95 million year old dinosaurs which unearthed from narmada river bed region of India has raised hot debate among researchers. Because the dinosaurs fossils totally contradict with the theory of continental drifting which proposed by German meteorologist Alfred Wagner. According to this theory before 200 million years ago all the present day continents were jointly present and the super continent was called as pangaea.and then splited in two major continents called as northern laurasia and the southern gonduwana.the theory continue to explains... From the gonduwana south America, south africa, antartica, australia, india and Madagascar separated before 150 million year ago and India was splited and drifted northward crossing the equator 70 million year ago and then collided with the Asian continet.due to the collision the Himalayas was formed and the collision also caused earthquake. But based on the study of dinosaur?s skull paleontologist say the dinosaurs that unearthed from the Gurath region was appeared 95 million years ago. The Gujarat dinosaurs have close relation with the dinosaurs that lived in South America and Madagascar.
(Very original I know) Anthropologists have found footprints and even skulls dating back to 5 million years ago that would prove that Homo sapiens are from Africa. Many scientists argue Homo sapiens did in fact not come from Africa, but instead The Multiregional Hypothesis. The Multiregional Hypothesis argues that our earliest hominid ancestors radiated out from Africa and Homo sapiens evolved from several different groups of Homo erectus in several places throughout the world (K. Kris Hirst.) Humans began to occupy many different places in Africa with new climates such as forests and deserts (Strayer, Page 13). Homo sapiens were never technologically advanced until they started to inhabit different places that made them change their ways and starting inventing tools to help them with wild animals.
This is called natural selection. Which brings us back to the question have humans evolved from apes. What most evolutionists think caused modern apes and humans to appear was the two groups have been separated in different environments for a long of time. Natural selection can work to evolve new species if the old gets split into two different groups. Most evolutionist believe that between 7 to 8 million years ago an ape-like species live in the forests of Africa, and were success full to survive until the climate began to change and forests began to dry out which forced apes to leave the woods and into the open grass.
According to the Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia ’98, the fossil evidence for direct ancestors of modern humans is divided into the category Australopithecus and Homo, and begins about 5 million years ago (See figure 1). Between 7 and 20 million years ago, primitive apelike animals were widely distributed on the African and, later, on the Eurasian continents (See figure 2). Although many fossil bones and teeth have been found, the way of life of these creatures, and their evolutionary relationships to the living apes and humans, remain matters of active discussion among scientists. The evidence for human evolution begins with the australopithecines. All the australopithecines were bipedal and therefore possible hominines.