Dynamical Systems Theory: An Alternative To Dynamical Approach To Cognition

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Dynamical Approach
Recently approaches based on nonlinear dynamics that focuses on changes in various parameters over time have been proposed as an alternative to symbolic approaches to cognition. Nonlinear dynamics involves modeling or analyzing the system using a set of non-linear differential equations. Dynamical systems theory provides a set of techniques including stability analysis to study cognitive dynamics. Arguments have been made for the extensive use of dynamic approaches (Gibbs, 2006; Kelso, 1995; van Gelder, 1998).
For example, Skarda & Freeeman (1987) used nonlinear dynamics to explain perception.
Kelso (1995) developed a nonlinear dynamical model for finger wagging which explained and predicted behavioural results from finger
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For example, Broad et al. (2000) found enhanced activation with upright faces (not inverted faces) in inferotemporal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus by examining c-fos (an immediate early gene) mRNA expression in those areas. Montero (2000) has shown enhancement in c-fos induction due to attentional factors in the visual and somatosensory cortices of rats after they have explored a novel environment. Avi Chaudhuri and colleagues have extensively used molecular mapping for studying the visual system (Zangenehpour and Chaudhuri, 2005; Chaudhuri, 2008).

Dynamical Approach
Recently approaches based on nonlinear dynamics that focuses on changes in various parameters over time have been proposed as an alternative to symbolic approaches to cognition. Nonlinear dynamics involves modeling or analyzing the system using a set of non-linear differential equations. Dynamical systems theory provides a set of techniques including stability analysis to study cognitive dynamics. Arguments have been made for the extensive use of dynamic approaches (Gibbs, 2006; Kelso, 1995; van Gelder, 1998).
For example, Skarda & Freeeman (1987) used nonlinear dynamics to explain perception.
Kelso (1995) developed a nonlinear dynamical model for finger wagging which explained and predicted behavioural results from finger wagging experiments. van Leeuwen (2007) has used nonlinear dynamics based analyses to explain perceptual

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