My perspective is that I am a substance and a property dualist because I view that the mind and body are made out of different properties, where the mind is not composed by the same substance as the body. On top of this, I also believe that even though the mind can be made up of physical properties, like the brain, however the mind has features that cannot be a way to function the brain. Hence, from the beliefs that I have
Branching from dualism, mind-body dualism argues that the mind and body are two separate entities. Although they are two different substances, i.e. brain/body being material and
The Oxford Dictionaries define dualism as “the division of something conceptually into two opposed or contrasted aspects, or the state of being so divided.“1 Dualism is the essentially the notion within a belief or theory that there lies two extremities. Dualism can be thought of as the two sides of an idea like justice and injustice. However, with dualism there are many branches that stream from it, be it in the philosophical, the psychological or the religious sense. In the philosophical sense, dualism is more so the distinction between both the body and the mind. Which is also known as the distinction between the physical and the spiritual, be it person or mind.
Rene Descartes once said, “There is a great difference between mind and body”. This statement comes from the idea that Descartes believed there were two substances that made up reality. One of the substances in reality Descartes called extension, or material being, meaning it takes up space. The other has to do with the mind, or thought, immaterial. This is called dualistic metaphysic’s.
Arguments of Dualism Dualism is the theory that mind and matter are two distinct things. The main argument for dualism is that facts about the objective external world of particles and fields of force, as revealed by modern physical science, are not facts about how things appear from any particular point of view, whereas facts about subjective experience are precisely about how things are from the point of view of individual conscious subjects. They have to be described in the first person as well as in the third person. . There are two kinds of dualism.
This essay will explore Descartes’ account on the relationship between the mind and body, through his accounts in his series, Meditations and go onto analyse Descartes’ arguments for the separation of the mind and body as two clear and distinct entities. In Meditations on First Philosophy, first published in 1641, Descartes attempts to demonstrate his idea that an individual is composed of two separate entities: the mind and body. According to Descartes, the mind is a non-physical thinking substance with no extension, and the body is a physical substance which is extended in space (Gueroult, 1985, pg. 47). This notion is known as substance dualism.
They say all minds have certain categories such as totality, unity, plurality, and reality. Transcendentalists believe knowledge is limited to the combined role of sensibility and understanding, both of which are concerned with sense and experience, though in different ways (Hakim 98). They also think knowledge is universal (Frost 258). Some transcendentalists think the ideas are of the mind and cannot be applied to a world outside of the mind. They believe ideas are a result of the kind of thinking organ which people have, and are determined by it's nature.
The thought is known through ideas and the extension is what exists and can be sensed physically. Extension therefore, is more of a physical property, while thought is a mental one. Descartes views thought as the property of mind and extension as the property of bodies. Spinoza however, believes that a mind and body reality could be distinguished into two separate attributes of thought and extension. Spinoza believed the mind and body are different.
Along with an argument usually comes a counter-argument or rebuttal. The main question about the mind-body issue is how can us humans determine the interaction between mind and matter. I believe property dualism is a logic, justifiable response because it separates the mental entity from brain states, and shows how it can be related to physical substances. The knowledge argument helps convey this view because it shows how non-physical properties such as consciousness, can be proven in any given person. The problems of interaction argument is a well structured rebuttal against property dualism, mostly because it brings about the issue that the mind is not a physical entity, thus it 's not possible for a non-physical substance to interact with a physical substance.
Mastin (2008) noted that “the real things are mental entities, not physical material, which only exist in the sense that they are perceived”. Neutral monism, by William James (1842-1910) and Bertrand Russel (1872-1970) believed that the ultimate reality can be perceived as either physical/mental. There is not much care for which property it is, therefore only focuses on that it is only one thing. (Thales, 624-545 BCE) viewed panpsychism, as the fact that “everything exhibits at least some quality of consciousness, but ultimately, is one pool (substrate) of consciousness”. Everything, including non-living objects have its own element of individual consciousness.