3 May 2000. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/283/17/228/ “Natural History.” Plague. 2005. CDC. 30 March 2005. http://cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/plague/history.htm#100 Mayoclinic. “Plague.” Health Library.
BCG-the current vaccine for tuberculosis. World Health Organization. 7/25/2005: http://www.who.int/vaccine_research/diseases/tb/vaccine_development/bcg/en/print.html 6. Yancey, D. 2001. Tuberculosis.
An attack on the lungs occur when the person breaths in the air, thus the bacteria is entered. The human body may consume bacteria that cause TB. Our immune system usually can prevent illness. Because of this, physicians distinguish between latent tuberculosis and active tuberculosis. Signs and symptoms of active TB is: 1) Unintentional 4) Chills 7) Fever 2) Weight loss 5) Loss of appetite 3) Night sweats 6) Fever A healthy immune system can often fight the bacteria of TB, but if the immune system defense is low the mount is not effective.
However, the process that the bacteria must go through in order to infect a human relie... ... middle of paper ... ...berlain/Website/lectures/lecture/plague.htm 2. Jarrett, C. et al. Transmission of Yersinia pestis from an infectious biofilm in the flea vector. Journal of Infectious Diseases. (2004) v190 I4 p783 3.
If actions are not taken to guard against rising problems, these issues could result in countless human casualties. Antibiotics should be prescribed less frequently by doctors due to instances of general misuse, weakened immune responses in patients, and adaptations in microbes. The lack of caution doctors use when prescribing antibiotics leads to countless cases of misuse. One-third of all patients that have been prescribed antibiotics use them with reckless abandon, and the warnings of doctors are disregarded. Failing to finish their prescription, saving leftover medication for treatment of future illnesses, or even sharing their antibiotics with a sick friend are included among the multitude of misuse instances.
About Inc. July 20, 2005: http://dermatology.about.com/cs/bioterrorism/a/plague.htm Emedicine. (2003-2005). Biological Warfare. Emedicine Consumer Health. July 20, 2005: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/articles/15704-3.asp Inglesby, T.V.
Many side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, thrush, allergies and even life-threatening bowel inflammation can occur when using antibiotics (NPS, 2012, para. 2-4). If people misuse antibiotics and take them for viral infections, they are not doing anything to help their condition, but they may be putting themselves at risk for increased discomfort and potentially life-threatening side effects. Antibiotics also cause the healthy bacteria in your body to diminish. Dr. Martin Blaser states, “evidence… suggests antibiotics may permanently change the beneficial bacteria that we’re carrying” (Conley, 2011, para.
As mentioned before, the super bacteria are developed and become stronger due to noncompliance with medical recommendations. This form of infection can be fatal since there are several types of antibiotics. If a person has an antibiotic-resistant bacteria, doctors will recommend another antibiotic, yet the new one will be more toxic and potent that the common-used drug. An example would be about the gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted disease. The therapy was just penicillin, but nowadays, penicillin does not work; it is necessary the use of either fluoroquinolones or cephalosporins (Antibiotic resistance, 2011), which are potent antibiotics when it is compared with penicillin.
157-158). M. tuberculosis is skilled at preventing this fusion allowing the bacteria to successfully avoid detection by the immune system (pp. 159-160). Granulomas are collections of macrophages used to separate the body from foreign particles (p. 158). Granulomas containing M. tuberculosis have necrosis, meaning that the cell will eat away and degrade the surrounding tissues (p. 158).
Med Microbiol Immunol 2013; 202(2): 95-104. 26. Jacobsen M, Repsilber D, Gutschmidt A et al. Candidate biomarkers for discrimination between infection and disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Mol Med (Berl) 2007; 85(6): 613-21.