Dr. Howard Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

Powerful Essays
Multiple Intelligence Theory proposed by Gardner (1983) was a novel view to what was previously defined as IQ. In his theory Gardner stated that intelligence is not a single, fixed ability in mind which can be tested by IQ Test. He argued that IQ tests can only measure verbal, logical-mathematical and some spatial intelligence. He believed that there are many more other kinds of intelligence such as visual/spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic intelligences. Later on he suggested that there may be other intelligences as spiritual and existential. According to Gardner (1993), intelligences can be improved, modified, trained and even changed. Generally, human ability and intelligences are…show more content…
As these definitions indicate, pragmatics covers various features of interaction.
To be successful in this area of language use one needs to have developed pragmatic competence as speech acts, implicature , situational routines and politeness.

2. Review of Literature
2.1. Theoretical background
The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. These intelligences are:
• Linguistic intelligence ("word smart")
• Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")
• Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")
• Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")
• Musical intelligence ("music smart")
• Interpersonal intelligence ("people
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Crystal (1997 p.301) has defined pragmatics as the study of language from users’ viewpoints. In other words, pragmatics is the study of communicative action in its socio cultural context.
As it was mentioned in Introduction section pragmatic competence consists of different parts such as speech acts, implicature, situational routines and politeness.
Speech acts were introduced in the 1960’s and 1970’s by Austin and Searle who believed that language is not only used to say things but also, to perform actions (Austin 1975: 95-102).
Speech acts: The study of speaker meaning
According to Searle (1969) "Speech acts are the actions performed via utterances since they consist of “uttering words”, “referring and predicating”, “stating, questioning, commanding, promising, etc.”
Implicature : The study of how more gets communicated than is said

Pragmatics studies meaning in interaction so it is not only concerned about “what is said” but also “what is meant”.
Grice was the first to distinguish between “what is said” and “what is meant” in the 1950’s. Grice’s theory presents the notion of implicature, the conveyed meaning of the speaker (Grice 1975:
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