Hildegard E. Peplau and Interpersonal Relations Theory Introduction Nursing theory provides the basics for nursing practice and makes it more meaningful. Nursing theory is necessary for the nursing profession because it serves as a foundation for nursing knowledge, enhances nursing practice and strengthens the focus of care. It helps guide the nursing practice and provide the framework that supports in decision making, planning care and interpreting evidenced-based data and evaluate outcomes. Many well-known nursing theorists made an impact in the nursing profession.
This writer is going to explore two different western nursing theories that were shaped by philosophy, politics, history and society and view the revolutionary application of the theories in the modern world. In the beginning of a journey to a psychiatric nursing career, a student needs to consider nurses of the past, and present, and the theories they developed. Nursing is constantly evolving and the nursing theories evolve in response to society’s evolution.(Barker,2009) Historically politics shaped society, and its view of the mentally ill. In the past, psychiatric nursing relied on the physicians/psychiatrists biomedical theory to mental illness. This writer suggests that today in response to the changing world that nurse theories will revolutionize treatment of the mental health consumer. The World Health Organization lists what world changes have occurred, and how health care needs to change in response to the world.(Barker,2009) WHO lists these changes in relevance to psychiatric nursing and the need for flexible mental healthcare, to address our changing society.(Barker,2009) The population is older and growing this requires a larger number of mental health nurses to respond.(Barker,2009) There are a larger number of mental illnesses identified by the DSM today than in the past.(Barker,2009) This definitely suggests, that a more psychosocial approach is needed in response, rather than the traditional biomedical “cure”. Ethnic and cultural diversity requires nurses to be more creative in applying theory to nursing.(Barker,2009) More links are being made between mental health and the changing society we live in. New technology demands that a psychiatric nurse apply new knowledge in their profession.(...
This theory can be applied across most of the nursing field including research, clinical areas, and education. According to an article that was written about Hildegard Peplau’s theory it stated that, “her idea of nursing as a collaborative, mutual and interprofessional process changed practice, education and research” (D’Antonio, Beeber, Sills, & Naegle, 2013, p. 316). When Peplau first implemented this theory into practice, it was initially used in just psychiatric nursing, however currently it can be used in all practice areas (McCarthy & Aquino-Russell, 2009, p.34). With this nursing theory, both the nurse and the patient have to be willing to participate in the relationship in order for the relationship to be therapeutic and helpful for the patient, which is one of the weaknesses of the theory. Sometimes it is difficult to form a therapeutic realsiotnship with psychiatric patients because the patient does not want to be in the emergency room and does not want to receive help because he or she believes that there is nothing
The nursing student has to make lots of sacrifices in order to succeed. These programs are not only expensive at most private schools, but require lots of time in the lives of the students. All most people see is that white uniform, but there are a lot that go with it. One has to have heart to become a nurse. Some who have attempted to become nurses focus more on the income (financial) benefits aspects of that career instead of looking at the more important side which is the humanitarian side. Others cannot get passed the science requirements in order to get to the goal of becoming a nurse. In actuality, the nursing field was not a profession at all in the early 1800’s. The pioneers (Florence Nightingale, Harriet Tubman, Walt Whitman, etc…) of the nursing field were not trained as nurses at all. Nurses weren’t recognized as a profession. People only trusted doctors as keepers of their health. This paper intends to explain how the nursing field relates to both psychology and sociology. These relations can be shown through works and research conducted to incorporate new techniques into nursing practice making healthcare better for both the nursing professional and the
Describes the purpose of nursing is to help others recognize their felt problems. Nurses should apply principles of human relations to the difficulties that arise at all levels of experience. Peplau's theory describes the phases of interpersonal process, roles in nursing situations and methods for studying nursing as an interpersonal process. She defined nursing as the therapeutic relationship between both individuals; therefore, it necessitated that the nurse interact with the patient purposefully (Senn, 2013, p. 32). Nursing is therapeutic in that it is a healing art, helping an individual who is sick or in necessity of health care. Nursing is an interpersonal process because it implicates interaction between two or more individuals with a common goal. The attainment of goal is achieved through the use of a sequence of steps following a series of pattern. The nurse and patient work together so both become mature and knowledgeable in the
The Theory of Interpersonal Relations by Hildegard Peplau was first published in nursing in 1952 (Forchuk & Dorsay, 1995). Peplau’s theory focused on the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient (Denisco & Barker, 2016). The nurse takes on the role of counselor, resource, teacher, technical expert, surrogate, and leader, as needed (Denisco & Barker, 2016). Interpersonal relation is derived from the empirical study of human interactions, which helps nurses better understand how to care for their patients based from the patient’s responses to experiences related to their health and illness (Peplau, 1997). According to Peplau (1997), relations refer to the connections, linkage, bonds or patterns that develop and are identifiable within the relationship. The three identifiable phases in this theory are: (1) the orientation phase, (2) the working phase, and (3) the termination phase (Senn, 2013). The nurse utilizes the nurse-patient relationship in each phase to assess the patient’s psychological, emotional, and spiritual needs with learned communication skills, personal strengths, and an understanding of human behavior (Senn, 2013).
Meleis, A. I. (2012). Theoretical nursing: Development & progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. [CourseSmart version]. Retrieved from http://www.coursesmart.com
Nursing also with the aid of theorists such as Madeline Leininger and Hildegard E. Peplau has evolved from an area of purely science to involve humanistic theories such as providing care that is culturally sensitive and forging a relationship with the patient to ensure patient safety and alleviation of illness.
According to McEwen and Wills (2014), decades before Dorothea Orem developed the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) in 1971, the identity of nursing as an independent field of study was not clearly defined. Several theories from Medicine and the Social sciences were the basis of earlier Nursing theories written between the 1950s and the 1970s. For example, Abraham Maslow’s work in Psychology, Hierarchy of Needs Theory, influenced earlier Nursing theories based on human needs. Orem, however, did not specify any theorist who provided the basis for the SCDNT. Instead, she cited Parson’s structure of social action and von Bertalanffy’s general systems theory – a sociologist and biologist respectively. In addition, Orem defined the metaparadigm