Down Syndrome: John Langton Down

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Down syndrome was discovered in the 1800’s by a man named John Langton Down. Down syndrome1 is a condition that occurs in the chromosomes. The syndrome affects the intellectual ability of the person effected, their facial appearance and causes hypotonia2. Children born with this usually experience different types of birth defects. These birth defects can include heart defects and intestine blockage. People with Down syndrome are also at a high risk of developing other medical conditions. Some medical conditions include gastro esophageal reflux3, celiac disease4, hypothyroidism5, and leukemia6. Also some visual and hearing problems can arise. There are three types of Down syndrome. The three types are Trisomy 21, translocation and mosaicism. Trisomy 21 is also known as nondisjunction. Usually a person has two separate copies of chromosome 21. In nondisjunction, the…show more content…
All three types of Down syndrome have an extra chromosome or part of chromosome 21 in one or all the cells. The extra chromosome changes the way an embryo develops and changes the physical and mental characteristics of the child. It is unknown what exactly causes nondisjunction. Although it is unknown, research has shown that the chances of having a child with Down syndrome go up as the woman’s age goes up. Even though the chances goes up the older the woman is, 80% of Down syndrome cases occur in woman under the age of 35. Although age can cause nondisjunction, there is nothing that proves that age is linked to translocation. This is due to more women having children at a younger age. Nothing as of today has been proven that any activities of the parents during or before pregnancy has affected the chance of the child developing Down syndrome. Also, there is no proof that the environment of the child causes Down syndrome. Most cases of Down syndrome have not been inherited from the parents, but 5% of the cases are due to the father’s

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