In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (eds. ), Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (121-160). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Rendon, M. (2008). Psychoanalysis, a bridge between attachment research and neurobiology.
The attachment theory will be looked at in respect to its practical implications for child rearing in the context of both family members and day care facilities. Evidence from research has provided information about factors which form the foundations of secure and insecure attachments these have implications for different types of child care. Very early, children develop internal working models, internalised ideas about the nature of their relationships with primary caregivers, they base these on former interactions and experiences (Bowlby,1969). These models remain relatively unchanged and continue to influence patterns of behaviour in later relationships. Emotional ties balance between a desire to maintain proximity to the primary caregiver and the natural pre-disposition to explore the world around.
This paper will firstly describe the essential features of the attachment theory followed by a critical evaluation of John Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis. An examination will be made of the work carried out by Mary Ainsworth (1978) on the nature of attachment relationships and finally an evaluation of the ways in which these theories and research implicate different forms of childcare will be explored. John Bowlby (1930-80), was the key figure in the development of attachment theory; the theory that children have a drive to feel secure by forming an emotional bond with a primary care giver. Bowlby (1951) developed his theory of maternal deprivation based on research he carried out on juvenile delinquents who had experienced long periods of separation from their primary care giver in the first few years of their lives. What he concluded based on that research was that maternal deprivation could seriously affect the mental health of a child and moreover that an infant’s failure t... ... middle of paper ... ... (2001) Child Development, New York, McGraw-Hill Stevenson, J. and Oates, J (1994) ‘Infant Individuality’ in Oates, J.
One of the most important factors that affect child development is the relationship of the child with their primary caregiver. This is a tenet of developmental psychology known as attachment theory. John Bowlby, the creator of this theory, wanted to examine how early childhood experiences influence personality development. Attachment theory specifically examines infant’s reactions to being separated from their primary caregiver. Bowlby hypothesized that the differences in how children react to these situations demonstrates basic behavioral differences in infancy that will have consequences for later social and emotional development.
It is based on Attachment Theory, “Attachment theory has maintained that the developing relationship between infant and caregiver is a co-construction deriving from the infant's producing signals that attract the caregiver's attention (smiling) and care (distress and crying), and the manner in which the caregiver responds to these signals (sensitivity and responsively).Variations in the quality of attachment between infant and mother in early childhood are believed to be more a function of... ... middle of paper ... ... close and foster the most attachment possible as early as possible. The thought of missing these critical years when they are growing and changing so much, makes me sad. I believe attachment parenting is in the best interest of parents and baby. Works Cited Zeanah, C., & Fox, N. (2004). Temperament and Attachment Disorders.
Parental Behaviors During Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms During Adolescence. Journal Of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(1), 59-71. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9542-2 Sheeber, L., Davis, B., Leve, C., Hops, H., & Tildesley, E. (2007). Adolescents’ relationships with their mothers and fathers: associations with depressive disorder and subdiagnostic symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 114-154. Sheeber, L., & Sorensen, E. (1998).
A lot of the time, the children’s welfare is not properly taken into account. Although some situations allow for flexibility, for example: growing up in an abusive home versus the separation of two parents. Nonetheless,... ... middle of paper ... ...just the separation of feelings of love between to people - it is the parting of a lifestyle and stability for the children involved. Works Cited: Amato, P. R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support.
According to the bolwby, attachment seeking has a second, more negative cause. This is a built in fear of the unknown and unfamiliar, he would want someone he or she... ... middle of paper ... ... overcome deprivation. Furthermore, the idea that early experience produces inevitable consequences for later life exerted a powerful influence on adoption policies. The usual beliefs of adoption agencies is that children need to be adopted before they reach the age five in order to reconstruct the damage done to their attachment. In conclusion, attachment in infants is concerned with how the infant’s closets relationship with its parents and caretakers develop.
Social referencing, according to Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart, and Roy (2008), occurs in ambiguous social situations when cues are taken from other people to determine appropriate actions. This processes is important in the lives of developing and growing infants, as they are continuously confronted with new and strange situations in their new worlds. These infants often gain information about these situations from their primary care giver, historically the mother. This paper will provide a summary of research relating to social referencing in infants. The foundational work of Saul Feinman will be reviewed.
Westport, CT: Praeger Miller, P. M. (2000) Developmental Issues for Young Children in Foster Care, Pediatrics, 106, p 1145-1150. Rutter (1981) Maternal Deprivation Reassessed, Second edition, Harmondsworth, Penguin. Rutter, M. (1979) Attachment and the Development of Social Relationships, in Scientific Foundations of Developmental Psychiatry, London: Heineman. Schaffer R (2007) "Introducing Child Psychology". 2007.