The role of energy in the body is to drag the oxygen from the air and diffuses into our blood stream. Energy is needed to circulate the blood and also for breathing and taking in oxygen. Now I am going to explain the physiology of the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system in relation to energy metabolism in the body. The Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system is responsible for supplying nutrients throughout the body and removing gaseous waste from the body. The cardiovascular system is made up of heart, blood and blood vessels.
The Circulatory System The circulatory system can be greatly affected by the type and amount of training a person does and therefore has to be considered very closely compared to other body systems. The main functions of the circulatory system are: · Transport- carrying blood, water, oxygen and nutrients throughout the body, and transport the removal of waste. · Body temperature control-the blood absorbs the body heat then carries it to the lungs and to the skin, where it is then released. · Protection- it helps to fight disease, e.g. antibodies, which fight infection, are carried in the blood and the clotting of seals cuts and wounds.
(Widamaier, et al 2011:5) The respiratory system works interdependently with the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to the body tissues and remove oxygen from the body. The respiratory system is made up of the nasal and oral cavities, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchi and the lungs. The airways of the respiratory system condition the air then the air travels into the alveoli of the lungs. There are many alveoli and these are covered in many capillaries to allow for a large surface area for gas exchange between the air in lungs and the blood in the capillaries. The alveolar wall is a thin membrane to allow gasses to pass through.
There are various different vessels which control the blood flow throughout the body. Which include high pressure arteries and arterioles originate from the heart. Capillaries which have a semipermeable membrane that allows the exchange of gasses, nutrients and wastes between the blood and the tissues. Also veins which are low pressure and contain valves that prevent backflow. All of these together perform the main functions of the cardiovascular system; protection, transportation and regulation.
The outer layer of the heart wall is the epicardium, the middle layer is the myocardium, and the inner layer is the endocardium. [IMAGE] The heart works as two pumps, one on the right and one on the left, working simultaneously. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle, and then is pumped to the lungs to receive oxygen. The blood then flows to the left atrium, then to the left ventricle. From there it is pumped round the circulatory system of veins and arteries, to deliver oxygen and nutrients around the body.
However, the air taken in... ... middle of paper ... ...gs compared to that of the surrounding blood. After oxygen molecules moves into the blood, they are bound to the red blood cells and are then transported through the body. Blood containing oxygen travels from the lungs into the chambers of the heart. When it reaches the heart, it is pumped around the rest of the body. The oxygenated blood travels through a number of vessels, allowing the red blood cells to come into contact with other cells in the body.
From the aorta, blood travels though the arteries and arterioles to the capillaries beds. This is where the delivery of oxygenated blood and nutrients in exchange for waste products occurs. Oxygen poor blood is carried back to the heart by veins that eventually come together to form the vena cava. Oxygen poor blood is carried though the right atrium of the heart then into the right and left lungs, where the oxygen diffuses into the blood from the air in the alveoli and carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the air of the alveoli. While traveling though the body, blood also helps in the regulation of body temperature, wate... ... middle of paper ... ...ume by storing cleansed blood to be used by the circulatory system when needed.
Both ventricles, inferior half, eject blood into the arteries and keep it flowing throughout the body. It is essential that blood flows in the correct direction through the heart so there are a number of valves needed. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle and the pulmonary valve divides the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery. The bicuspid valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle, and the aortia valve separates distinguishes the left ventricle from the ascending aorta (The S... ... middle of paper ... ... begins with the atria depolarizing, which is being represented in the EKG by the P wave. After the P wave, the QRS complex wave represents ventricular depolarization.
The diagram below shows compartments of the heart in more detail. Heart, Section Through the Middle Blood used by the body returns through the veins to the right compartment (pulmonary circulation) of the heart via the inferior and superior cava, (these are large veins). This blood is then pumped by the heart to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is removed and blood is oxygenated. This blood is then returned back to the left compartment of the heart via 4 pulmonary veins, where it will be pumped to all other cells in the body including the heart itself. The left side of the heart has a thicker more muscular wall because it has to pump blood much further, around the entire body.
Blood transports oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to all cells of the body. Metabolic waste products are transported from cells to sites of elimination; for example, to the lungs for removal of carbon dioxide and to the kidneys for dumping of nitrogenous wastes in urine. Blood additionally transports hormones to their target organs. Blood regulates an appropriate body temperature by absorbing and distributing heat throughout the body and to the skin surface to support heat loss. Normal pH in body tissues is regulated by blood.