A. Behaviorism, constructivism and cognitivism are relatively common theories used in the classroom as ways to approach student learning. Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior, such as students answering questions correctly, or being able to follow directions to complete a task as instructed. Characteristics of a classroom that uses behaviorism might be memorization of facts, writing vocabulary words, or a token reward system to inspire the desired behavior and decrease undesired behaviors. Constructivism, as indicated by the root word “construct,” focuses on the construction of new ideas, or expanding on what is already known. Students in a classroom using constructivism as a means for learning might seem more actively engaged in the learning process; they often learn something new through applying what they already know about the content area, and exploring new matter to further their understanding.
I believe that students must first gain knowledge and then apply it. I will help them use their knowledge by giving them activities that coincide with the curriculum I am teaching them. I believe that students learn best by being engaged in real-world activities and should be active in the learning process. I hope that my classroom will be a place where my students and I can learn from each other and teach each other. I hope to learn from my students as they learn from me.
Different Learning Styles Students have different ways to learn. Some people are hands on learners or visual learners. Teachers try to adapt the way they teach; to the way their students learn the best. The information that is being taught should be made fun so that the students remember the information. Schools are also using new technology to help students learn.
Quizzes, questionnaires, worksheets and handouts are given to students to practice them in the class according to the topics. As an ESOL teacher, adopting inclusive learning approach is at times becomes crucial, because students learning experience varies prior learning. They have different levels of assimilation due to the nature of diversity in groups. I plan my teaching to ensure that teaching style should meet students need and they learn effectively. Knowing the needs of my students through assessments and ILPs help me to plan my lessons accordingly.
The Foundation for Learning Students past interests, experiences, prior knowledge, references and thought processes can effective the way students learn, process information and remember due to prior experiences, how it made them feel and their personal views and attitude towards specific subjects and can alter the way they learn new material and concepts because of this meaningful learning is important. It is a teachers job to have teach students in a way that can relate to their background knowledge and insure that material in on a level the student an process. Material and lessons should be relevant to the student to make it easier to promote learning in the classroom. However, learning cannot occur without having a prior foundation because this gives a basis from which to build. “The link between past experiences, student interest, and present learning is that we draw upon previous experiences and memories as we learn” (Slavin, 2006).
For students, they will discover their learning style preferences. It will help them to control their learning process. If they learn with learning style preference and teacher’s teaching style matches their learning style, they will probably pay more attention to materials and lessons. Furthermore, if students’ learning styles match teacher's teaching styles, students will have the better academic achievement and have positive attitudes toward learning. For teachers, they will find general learning style of students in the class, so this can help them organize their teaching style to match student’s learning style.
The teacher’s questioning strategy can help students obtain understanding and see connections as they work toward solutions to problems. (Inspire, 2011) “One of the most striking aspects of teaching is that the teacher’s speech consists of questions” (Manouchehri & Lapp, 2003, p.563). Each question the teacher asks should be strategic toward the goal of student learning. The teacher must determine beforehand what student response is desired and structure the questioning accordingly. Questioning can also aid the educator by assessing the students’ comprehension and understanding, thereby allowing the modification of instruction if necessary (Chappell & Thompson, 1999).
Encarta (2009) defines learning as the acquisition of knowledge or skills. It is involves in acquiring new competences. In order to achieve good teaching and learning developmental process, both teachers and students play vital role throughout the lesson. One of the major concerns in ensuring successful classroom is the suitable approach or appropriate methodologies used in class by teachers. As we all know, learners have their own learning style.
They make effective use of self-centered teaching; one of Mosston and Ashworth’s eleven teaching styles. This teaching style will allow students to take on the role as teacher and help their peers in learning and assessing new material. It also makes students cognizant of their own biases, whilst being exposed to other perspectives and observation styles that together help the student develop their ability to judge others not according to personal preference or emotional appeal. Furthermore, students can actually develop a cognitive understanding of all components of each skill being evaluated. Peer assessments require that the student-teacher is able to grasp the skill components cognitively.
By creating a personal interpretation of external ideas and experiances, constructivism allows students the ability to understand how ideas can relate to each other and preexisting knowledge. A teacher must then recognize the importance of the cognative and social approaches for learning and teaching so that she may aid the students' development in constructivist learning. Both approaches are valuable because one will emphasize the role of cognative processes and the other will emphasize culture and social interaction in the role of meaningful learning. One, however, may wonder how to go about enforcing these approaches. One method is through scaffolding, providing a student with sufficient information to be able to complete a task on his own or, to present a gradual decrease in the amount of help availible allowing the student the capacity to work independantly.