Dispositional Factors And Dispositional Differences

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POTENTIAL INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES The following section is structured according to dispositional factors, stable personality traits and behavior patterns, current operator state, attitudes and demographic factors. Thereby, we take into consideration the current situation and condition of a participant (states, attitudes) as well as stable factors that are distinctive for the participant and do not change or vary much. There are further relevant influence factors, e.g. the participant’s instruction to an experiment, that do not directly trace back to individual differences and therefore are not being discussed in this paper, but still remain important. 2.1 Dispositional Factors A disposition refers to a person’s innate natural abilities that are seen as more or less unaffected by learning. One of the most crucial dispositions in traffic safety is the individual reaction time to events. Even if the driving task is carried out by a vehicle automation system, reaction times still remain important: If the automation reaches a system limit or fails, the driver is required to quickly take back control as a response to a take over request (TOR) by the vehicle (e.g. an earcon). Manual driving requires the driver’s attention constantly on the road, but automated driving makes it possible for the driver to engage himself in other Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Conference... ... middle of paper ... .... Accordingly, they perform worse in vigilance tasks [84]. The inattentiveness may be caused by deficits in central executive processing [31], particularly deficits in working memory that have already been associated with impairment in vigilance performance [5]. Symptoms of ADHD can still be prevalent in personality traits in adulthood without being on a pathological level [46]. This can be seen in studies that found a relationship between personality traits like extraversion or impulsivity and impairment in vigilance performance [30, 59, 75]. In addition, monotonous, long-distance driving leads to a greater decrease in vigilance and increase in fatigue for individuals who score high on extraversion and sensation-seeking [76, 79]. Neuropsychological tests that are sensitive for ADHD, for example for subtests for working memory [82], could exhibit predictive validity.

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