In April of 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick published a game changing paper. It would blow the mind of the scientific community and reshape the entire landscape of science. DNA, fully knows as Deoxyribonucleic Acid is the molecule that all genes are made of. Though it is a relatively new term with regard to the age of science, the story of DNA and the path to its discovery covers a much broader timeframe and had many more contributors than James Watson and Francis Crick. After reading the paper the audience should have a better understanding of what DNA is, the most important experiments that contributed to its ultimate discovery and the names and contributions of the lesser-known scientists that helped Watson and Crick turn their idea
James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA, but only by drawing on the work of many scientists who came before them. (Maddox, 2003) In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty published “Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types”, which was the first scientific work to identify DNA as the molecule that carried genetic information, and became a breakthrough at that time. (Avery, Macleod, & McCarty, 1944) Before Avery and coworkers published their paper, there was very little interest in DNA among scientists in the field of genetics. Very little was known about DNA, however, early analyses suggested that it was a very simple molecule, at least in terms of its chemical composition. This view was best embodied by the so-called “tetranucleotide hypothesis”, which held that DNA was composed of equal amounts of four nucleotides, adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine.
This reading report begins with a discussion of key tenets of science followed by a discussion of some misconceptions about science. It then concludes with a look at science in relation to religion, feminism, post modernism and African cultural worldview. The main thrust of ... ... middle of paper ... ...l The Battle of Beginnings: Why Neither Side is Winning the Creation- Evolution Debate. Downers Grove, Il. : InterVarsity Press, 1996 Reines, F. “Who Needs Science?” Beam Line, Spring 1993, pp 3-5 Energy Department (DOE) SuDoc Number: E 1.113:23/1 Shapin, Steven “History of Science and Its Sociological Reconstructions.” History of Science 20: 1982; pp 157-211 Shapere, D. (1984).
They also discovered about the four nitrogen bases, their shapes, and how you can re-organize them in different orders, but due to their shapes, A and T must be connected to each other and the same goes for G and C. DNA was discovered in the 1800s by various scientists, but James Watson and Francis Crick didn’t determine what the structure of DNA was until 1953. James Watson and Francis Crick met at Cambridge University and met Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins in London, England. The way that Watson and Crick discovered the structure is that they found that the shape of each nitrogen base and used reasoning to determine that G must fasten
Retrieved from http://nursingplanet.com/theory/Behaviorist_theory.html PBS (1998). A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: Sigmund Freud. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhfreu.html Rhee, S. Y. (2014). Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).
The American Biology Teacher [On-line serial]. Vol. 66. Retreived July 21, 2005 from the Internet: http://www.bioone.org/bioone/?request=get-document&issn=0002-7685&volume-66&pa Shannon, T. (1999, March). Ethical issues in genetics.
The basic structure of the DNA molecule is helical, its bases are stacked on top of each other .DNA's four bases pair up and this system of pairing is referred to as the complementary base pairing. Genes are the chemical blueprints that determine an organism's traits. Moving genes from one organism to another transfers those traits. Through genetic engineering, organisms are given new combinations of gene and therefore new combinations of traits. This does not occur in nature and, indeed, cannot be developed by natural means.1 [IMAGE] Figure 1 from Google images ... ... middle of paper ... ...e cure of genetic diseases.
The Double Helix "The discovery of the structure by Crick and Watson, with all its biological implications, has been one of the major scientific events of this century." (Bragg, The Double Helix, p1) In the story of The Double Helix, James Watson tells of the road that led to the discovery of life's basic building block-DNA. This autobiography gives insight into science and the workings within a professional research laboratory that few members of society will ever be able to experience. It also gives the reader an idea of the reality of life for one scientist and how he struggled with the problem of DNA. However, the author's style is marked by his lack of objectivity and inclusion of many biased opinions and personal prejudices.
Years later, on the morning of February 28, 1953, Watson and Crick came into the picture, as they announced that they “had discovered the secret of life” (Markel 2013). Their discovery of the double helix made them publish a paper in the 1953 issue of Nature, describing the structure of DNA, which resulted them to receive the Nobel Prize in 1962. T... ... middle of paper ... ...her child’s whereabouts. Ironically, the jury undisputedly found her “not guilty of murder, manslaughter, and child abuse” and Casey Anthony was not charged with first-degree murder, as there was no equitable doubt. These two cases shares many similarities, yet differs in a few ways.
The term “nuclein” was later changed to “nucleic acid” and eventually to “Deoxyribonucleic Acid” or “DNA.” At this point, many scientists did not realize how important this information was, therefore many ignored this information. Then, in 1919, an American biochemist named Phoebus Levene laid the groundwork for the future studies of DNA. He was the first to identify and explain how the nucleic acid components, sugar and phosphate, combine to form nucleotides. Next, Erwin Chargaff, a student of Cambridge, fortified the foundation of studies that had already been made. He created a set of rules called “Chargaff’s rules.” The first rule he established is that, in human DNA, the number of adenine components equals the number of thymine components and the number of guanine components equals the number of cytosine components.