Disadvantages Of Osteoporosis

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Osteoporosis is a bone disease defined by decreasing bone mass resulting in minimal mechanical bone strength causing the patient to be at high risks of falls and fractures. The risk of bone fractures is base on bone strength and the forces applied upon it. However the severity of the disease can even cause bones to fracture with just minimal trauma from performing daily routines. Genetics, hormonal, and dietary factors are known to influence the onset of osteoporosis and its severity. There are two types of osteoporosis; Primary osteoporosis which results from old age or menopause and secondary osteoporosis defined as the loss of bone mass due to other disorders such as hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) or hyperandrenocortism (Cushing’s disease).…show more content…
published an article summarizing the role of estrogen in skeletal growth. In short, estrogen initiates the growth spurt in both men and women by stimulating the release of GH and IGF-1. This article emphasizes on the strong link between estrogen and GH/IGH1, which can be observed during puberty as estrogen levels increases it stimulates increase in GH/IGH1 release. Women is found to have higher concentrations of GH compared to men due to the fact that estrogen is the primary sex hormone for females. It is evident that estrogen is a necessary hormone for longitudinal bone growth and proper closure of the epiphyseal growth plates because it stimulates the release of GH/IGH1 that keeps bone formation and resorption in a…show more content…
One approach by Kameda et al. is estrogen replacement therapy. In this, study they isolated purified rabbit osteoclast and treat it with17 β-estradiol (E2). The results show that E2 directly inhibited osteoclast resorption by induced apoptosis in osteoclast cells. This is a strong indicator that estrogen hormone therapy may be effective against Type 1 osteoporosis, it inducing apoptosis in osteoclast thereby preventing further breakdown of the bone matrix allowing time for the osteoblast to reform new bone matrix. At the same time an increase in estrogen levels can stimulate the pituitary gland to secret more GH to restore osteoblast activity. Another study involving GH introduction into rats done by Ohlsson et al., observed increased bone mass and mechanical strength. Locatelli and Bianchi reported in their study that administration of GH and IGF-1 to patients have shown increased bone resorption and formation affected by osteoporosis. GH and IGF-1 also showed to improve bone healing in patients with hip or tibial

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