In the period 1865-1900, technology, government policy, and economic conditions all greatly changed American agriculture at the expense of the farmers. New farming machinery had a large role in the late 19th century, giving farmers the opportunity to produce a surplus of crops. The railroads also had a large influence on agriculture. Although they were able to quickly transport goods, the railroads were also used to charge the farmers large fees. The booming industry also changed American agriculture, creating a multitude of monopolies which the farmers simply could not compete.
The open markets are filled with competitors trying to trade and sell their goods and services. Fair Trade laws are enacted to provide an equal opportunity in the marketplace for developing countries and small producers of goods. To protect their financial economies, .governments intervene by placing huge taxes and quotas on exports, to restricting producers who try to flood the markets with their products. This intervention also helps those producers who are facing unfair trading practices. Companies who provide cheaper made products, can cause a deficit for any country by flooding their economy with these exports.
The decades after the Civil War rapidly changed the face of the United States. The rapid industrialization of the nation changed us from generally agrarian to the top industrial power in the world. Business tycoons thrived during this time, forging great business empires with the use of trusts and pools. Farmers moved to the cities and into the factories, living off wages and changing the face of the workforce. This rapid industrialization created wide gaps in society, and the government, which had originally taken a hands off approach to business, was forced to step in.
Thus, it is crucial to assess different mechanisms (incentives and corporate in particular) which may help improve motivation with perspectives from economists, sociologists and psychologists. Incentives take an economists’ approach since it is strongly linked to the theory of principle and agent. Due to the separation of ownership and control, there is a misalignment between objectives of shareholders and employees. The shareholders’ main goal is to gain profits for the firm whilst having to control the employees’ actions. Problems such as not being able to monitor what the employees are buying and what they should can lead to losses.
The Industrial Revolution and the Life in Urban Society The Industrial Revolution began in the late eighteen and nineteenth centuries due to a rapid emergence of modern industrial production that changed society significantly. Goods that were produced in homes and small family businesses began to be produced in large industrial factories. As a result of this, productivity and efficiency increased dramatically, which caused a significant shift in the present economy. The Industrial Revolution led to the growth of cities as people moved from rural areas to the city in order to find work. Karl Marx believed that the changes brought on by the Industrial Revolution overturned not only the traditional economies, but also society in general.
Moreover they were discontented with the approach that the government had taken towards the situation. After the civil war, America found itself with a high production rate, resulting in overproduction and falling of prices, as well as an increase on economic stress and the beginning of panic and prosperity cycles. The wars demand for products had called for a more efficient production system; therefore new machinery had come into place. New tools, such as the reaper, shown in document D, the wheat harvest of 1880, were introduced and facilitated production for farmers, making overproduction more probable. Variation on prices than begun to occur as shown in document A, Agriculture prices in 1865-1900, where a greater amount of goods became available for a more convenient price.
The emergence of the working class and the growing divide between classes also meant that a new political and economic structure was developed: capitalism. Industrialization began in Britain since there was a large supply of coal and steel and it was seen as one of the greatest colonial powers, thus allowing it to gain the capital and market needed to industrialize. Since Britain led the way for industrialization, it could be seen to epitomise the effects that it had on countries. One of the social effects that industrialization had was that the ‘rhythm of life changed’ . Pre-industrialization, people were based mainly in rural areas.
As a response of this technical progression and economic revolution, particular altercations occurred fundamentally, and played a negative effect on the criteria of life for the urban and rural working classes. The negative effects caused by these fundamental changes on both working classes played out economically, socially, as well as on the workplace conditions. The European nations in the early 18th century, as shown in document 1, witnessed an exponential increase regarding their population. Not only did this population upsurge drain on the supply of food (doc8), it also distributed the low-cost labor source to the industrialists which was necessary for their factories to function. Conversely, these expanding industrialists were responsible for the mass migration of people to the urban cities.
The English Industrial Revolution (1760-1830) was characterized by the new technologies and the prosperity of textile industry and coal mining industry. In short, new production methods and high productivity reduced the amount of human forces needed in agriculture but also created a huge demand of labor for sectors that began to develop. Consequently, a lot of peasants, workers and artisans were obliged to move to industrial regions, and changed then completely the life style. Traditionally, the goods were produced by families: women took care of the family while men were the main labor forces; and tasks of less importance were given to children according to their age. In this familiar productive unit, the leisure time was mixed with the working time.
3Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Factory employers demanded a complete change of pace and discipline from the village life. Before the revolution, jobs were limited because the work was completed using animals or hand power. Many of the jobs required men with specific skills which were accomplished through long hours of work and practice. In the past and in the present it could be clearly seen that the sprouting factories have brought high commands for individuals to function the births of new technology including the adoption of the spinning jenny, water frame, and spinning mule that made the textile industry possible.