The tyrants contributed most in that they eliminated the presence of the aristocracy leaving each citizen to prove their worth by their service of the polis (84). Throughout this period, tyrants ruled their individual city-states, and allied themselves with other allies to prevent war (84). After the end of the dark ages, Polytheism arose as a central religion connecting Greek peoples (85). During this age, the polis was still apparent though differed tremendously between different states (87). Sparta and Athens, though powerful and influential Greek states were among these poleis and though they were perhaps, the most likely of the states to unite Greece both were unfit.
The Athenian had a government that consisted of an Aristocratic Council, the different property classes and the Archons, or nine magistrates. Everybody else, the common folk, were left out of the Athenian government completely. Athens had an extremely strict law code set out by Draco that was not accepted by the Athenians, and almost led to war. Solon, who's roots came form posidon, made seven reforms to Athenian law which canceled all debts, freed debt slaves, repealed Draco's Law, legalized private property, divided society into four classes based on wealth, opened law courts to all classes, and devised a uniform system of weights and measures.
When we think of Greece today, we think of one united nation. However, Greece was not always this way. In ancient times, Greece was divided into over a thousand city-states with Sparta and Athens being two of the most prominent ones. Due to the division of Greece back then, each city-state had their own laws, their own government, their own military and their own way of life. As a result of these differences between Athens and Sparta, daily life was very different between the two city-states and because of their laws, governments and military, your quality of life in each state was very much dependant on which gender you were.
It appears the ancient Greeks were very concerned with the basic question as to who should rule and how. The typical debate was if sovereignty (known as kyrion) rest in the rule of law, the written constitution, elected/appointed officials, or the citizenship. Because there was never a consensus across the different city states, the region was left with a very diverse and confusing combination for several centuries. Real political power could rest in the hands of a single individual: (monarchies and tyrants) or in a select few (the oligarchies) or in every male citizen: democracy - widely regarded as the Greeks' greatest contribution to civilization (Ancient Greek Government, n.d.). MONARCHY In the context of ancient Greece, monarchies were very rare and were very much like tyrannies; however, the characteristics of monocracies usually inferred a ruler that cared for and was interested in the people of the governorship.
Private ownership of land was taken away and all the land was state controlled and was evenly distributed. Sparta soon became strictly militarized and every man became a soldier starting at the young age of seven. This made Sparta’s army indestructible but the political, economical, and cultural evolution ended for Sparta due to the military reforms. Athens on the other hand was not as big of a state as Sparta, and they were a sea power state instead of focus on land military. Also Athens went from a Monarchy to being controlled by archons, which were chosen actually by the aristocrats.
The first is that it would be very difficult to complete a project so large as to write an entire law code in one year. The next is that it was recorded by Aristotle that Solon travelled for a ten year peiod and on his journeys, viewed the laws of other lands. It makes sense that he would then have written his laws after that. Another major argument in favour of the later date is that there was much trouble in Athens in the 590's and 80's. This was probably the trouble which spurred the people of Athens to have Solon create new laws, on the other hand if the situation in Athens was as bad as Aristotle would have us believe then why would Solon wait to lay down the law, it would have m... ... middle of paper ... ...hip are the conditions in Athens when he was archon and the powers given to Solon.
Additionally, the Spartan government consisted of two kings. One king would stay at home governing the state while the other would go to fight. Evidently, the main problem for Sparta was that their military was the problem solver and creator. Therefore, the Spartan military was prepared for war. To remain prepared, the Spartans began military training for children at the age of seven and killed unhealthy infants.
The Athenian democracy consisted of three main bodies: the assembly, the council of 500, and courts system. Each government bodies are composed of multiple members and their functions in the Athenian democracy will be followed. As depicted in Exhibit 1, every citizen is apart of a deme. However, not everyone was a citizen, especially foreigners, women, children and slaves were excluded. After the Persian Wars, Pericles was put in power and he made it difficult to get Athenian citizenship.
However, once this common enemy was defeated, Sparta and Athens began to become great rivals vying for control of Greece. This resulted in the First and Second Peloponnesian Wars, which saw the rise and fall of the Athenian Empire. Sparta eventually rose to be the victor with the assistance of their former enemy Persia, but the era city-states would not live on for very much longer. The Peloponnesian Wars should be studied, because it details the rise and fall of one of the greatest city-states in Greek history.
"This time they were determined to use overwhelming force so in 481 B.C., Xerxes gathered together an army of several hundred thousand infantry and a navy of ... ... middle of paper ... ... Eventually, Athenian-Spartan relations would reach the breaking point. A conflict known by many as the First Peloponnesian War started in 460 B.C, and lasted until 446 B.C. This was a relatively mild struggle that occurred between the city states of Athens and Corinth for the most part. Occasionally Sparta would get involved in the fighting with Athens, but 446 B.C.