However, if the temperature and pressure is different from the diamond condition, Graphite which is an allotrope chemically identical as diamond will be formed with completely different characteristic. Diamonds formed successfully will deposit in the diamond stability zone under the continental crust. Then the diamonds is transferred to the earth surface by volcanic eruption. The volcanic pipes which have blue ground and yellow ground with the cylindrical shape that transfer the diamond out to the surface is named as Kimberlite by H.C.Lewis (Erlich and Hausel 2003, 79). On the other hand, natural diamond is not only formed deep underground, it can also formed in s... ... middle of paper ... ...n the earth surface, therefore high velocity, temperature and pressure are produced on this point (Chapman and Morrison 1994).
Diamonds is actually a carbon-bearing mineral, carbon in its most concerted structure (diamond).The geological formation of the natural diamond obliges to particular exposures where certain pressure condition that is appropriate is being subjected to the carbon-bearing material to crystallize as diamonds plus comparative... ... middle of paper ... ...ochimica Acta 24 (1-2): 83-105. http://dx.doi.org.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/10.1016/0016-7037(61)90009-6 Nowicki, Tom E., Rory O. Moore, John J. Gurney, and Mike C. Baumgartner. 2007. "Diamonds and Associate Heavy Minerals in Kimberlites: A revie of Key Concepts and Applications." Developments in Sedimentology 58: 1235–1267. http://dx.doi.org.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/10.1016/S0070-4571(07)58046-5.
Natural diamonds are formed at both a high pressure and temperature at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 120 miles) in the Earth’s mantle. Minerals that contain carbon provide the carbon source and growth periods occur from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years. This is a significant number that represents twenty five to seventy five percent of the age of the earth. The diamonds are moved close to the Earth’s surface through deep volcanic eruptions of magma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamondwikipedia). Now let’s take a closer look at the processes which move diamonds from deep within the earth to a place closer to the surface, where they can be mined.
Furthermore, it is doubtful that diamonds actually contain chemicals that are similar to those of Graphite and charcoal. The difference is only in the process of formation where diamonds are crystallized in the form of a cube under the pressure of large earth pressure and high temperatures up to thousands of degrees Celsius. Thus, the bonds of the carbon atoms in diamond are very strong and uniform to produce crystals that ... ... middle of paper ... ... Hall, C. (1994). Dorling Kindersley handbook: Gemstones. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley Limited.
At this great depth, carbon gets a chance to cool very gradually, forming diamond crystals. When volcanic eruptions occur, magma carries the diamonds up to the surface of the earth. Kimberlite lavas carrying diamonds erupt at anywhere between 10 and 30 km/hour and increase their velocity to several hundred km/hour within the last few kilometers. (Pough, 44) At the surface, this lava cools and turns into Kimberlite rock. That is why diamonds are often found in kimberlite, a volcanic rock, which is often much younger than the diamonds themselves.
Deep within African mines, elusive diamonds lay enveloped in the Earth’s crust. Possessing much influence, beauty, and tension, nature’s hardest known substance causes parallel occurrences of unity and destruction on opposite sides of the globe. Diamonds, derived from the Greek word "adamas", meaning invincible, are formed deep within the mantle, and are composed entirely from carbon. Moreover, only under tremendous amounts of heat and pressure can diamonds form into their preliminary crystal state. In fact, diamonds are formed approximately 150km- 200km below the surface and at radical temperatures ranging from 900-1300 C°.
These 0.5% of elements are the reason why a Diamond has different color shades. For example Nitrogen causes it to have a yellow tint , and Boron a blue shade. The pink color in some Diamonds are thought to be caused by deformation of the atomic structure of the diamond crystal. A pure Diamond , which would be 100% carbon, is colorless Diamonds were created million years ago, when the earth was formed, the material experienced pressure of 5million times the atmosphere at sea level and temperatures between 1000~1200degreesC. These conditions caused carbon in the layers inside the planet to crystallize into diamonds.
Most of the diamonds today are mined in African countries. They were formed by molten lava millions of years ago. Before any diamonds are found you must look for its indicator minerals. Different indicator minerals are found as you go deeper into the soil. The indicator minerals of a diamond include garnet, chromite, ilmenite, clinopyroxene, olivine, and zircon.
THE TIMING OF THINGS One problem that confronted scientist was determining exactly when the Cretaceous era ended and the Tertiary began. This investigation led to other problems such as accurately dating the fossils that are discovered and how to correlate the different fossils and sediment found around the planet. Dating rocks is a tricky business. Even with radioactive dating, there is still a significant margin of error, which can encompass hundreds of millennia. Igneous rocks are the only rocks that can be dated by this method since it works on the elements from which they are formed.
They supported their conclusion on the basis of organic molecules, carbonates, and minerals found inside the rock, which are basic components of living things. This announcement astonished the world, but not the critics who skeptically stated opposite explanations for each of the components discovered. The main discussion focused by critics like Allan Treiman arguing that "This scientist have lowered the standards of evidence rather than raised them, which is what you would expect for a claim this extraordinary." (qtd. in Begley and Rogers 58) The problem raises when it is proved that those kinds of minerals and organic molecules found in the meteorite, which fell from Mars about 13,000 years ago, can also be formed during nonbiological reactions such as very high temperatures.