Diamond Mining Essay

1.0 Introduction
Historically, most of earliest diamonds were found in India where the first diamond mine in the world were developed (Edward and Hausel 2002). Today, diamond deposits are found in some locations as different situations. For instance, diamonds have been found and mined in southern Africa and the largest deposits are currently in Siberia (Yelisseyev et al., 2013). However, the largest diamond mine in the world is at Argyle in northern Western Australia that produces 25 million carats of diamonds a year and around 30% of the world's production (Andrew, 1998).
The locations are geologically known as cratonic lithosphere which are the primitive foundational basement rocks and where first continents have been created (Andrew 1998).
The diamond formation requires a special condition. As diamonds are considered that they are from deep inside the earth, it must meet the special condition which high temperature and pressure. However, some of diamonds we have found such as microdiamonds are located at not corresponding places with the condition. When this fascinating mystery was solved, new discoveries and evidences for wide range of studies were come out. This paper will examine the formations one by one then retrieve evidences to reveal one common myth.

2.0 Diamond in a mantle
Diamonds are the earth's hardest mineral and made of carbon that requires specific condition to form as about 150-200 km beneath the continental crust in the upper mantle where high temperature (1082-1320℃) and pressure (4.6-7.7 Gpa). This stipulation allows it to crystallise (Matthew et al., 2008). Since diamonds have been formed at high temperature and pressure in the upper mantle, carbon atoms bond together and each carbon atoms are bonded to ...

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...elled by above diamond formations. First, diamonds were existed at least at the era when first continents were formed and they have found at the 100-150 km beneath the crust in the mantle. However, coal is sedimentary rock from dead remains vegetation like trees and it must have formed after continents were formed. Second, oceanic plates mainly subduct under continental one due to high dense and the main sources of carbon are limestone, dolomite, and marble. Third, tiny diamonds were formed outside of the earth and collision with meteorites took place before life was existed on the earth. From those evidences, coal can not be diamonds.
Studying diamond by many kinds of scientists has contributed scientific evidences owing to diamond's hardness, bonding, and origin. This subject will keep providing beautiful commercial market, industrial use, and scientific research.

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