A stroke is the acute neurologic injury that come as a result of an effect of ischemia or haemorrhage of the encephalon. Ischemia is caused by diminished supply of arterial blood which carries sugar and oxygen to brain tissue. Haemorrhagic stroke is due to intracerebral or subarachnoid bleeding and it damages the brain directly at the site of the bleeding by compressing the encircling tissue. Ischemic strokes can be embolic or thrombotic. Thrombotic stroke consequences from clot formation in the arterial blood vessel that provides blood to the encephalon, and can bear upon either large vessel or small vessel.
Small vessel disease affects the intracerebral arterial system. A stroke due to impedimenta of these vessels is referred to as a lacunar infarction. Lacunar infarctions are small (0 2 to 15 millimeter in diameter) noncortical infarctions caused by occlusion of a single penetrating branch of a large cerebral arterial blood vessel. Lacunar stroke has 5 classic syndromes and motor stroke is the most syndrome. The typical presentation is hemiparesis of face, arm or leg of one side. Clinical symptoms of stroke are slurred speech, right hand numbness, weak right mitt grip, and right sided facial palsy.(health direct, 2014)and most common among ischemic strokes (Rathore, Hinn, Cooper, Tyroler, & Rosamond, 2002).
Mechanisms of ischemic cell injury and death
There is progressive vasoconstriction of arterioles until the BP exceeds the upper limit of auto regulation, followed by breakthrough vasodilation, increase in cerebral blood flow, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and cerebral oedema(Rodriguez-Yanez et al., 2006). Cerebral ischemia results in severely ischemic tissue with failure of electrical activity and ionic pumps (Rodriguez-Yanez et al., 2006) There is increase in the release of the excitatory amino acid glutamate due to electrical failure. (Rodriguez-Yanez et al., 2006) . Glutamate receptors are activated as a result and cause the opening of ion channels that allow potassium ions to leave the cell and sodium and calcium ions to enter. This has a number of physiological effects.
The above events end in cell death, including depletion of ATP, changes in ionic concentrations of sodium, potassium, and calcium, increased lactate, acidosis, accumulation of oxygen free radicals, intracellular accumulation of water, and activation of proteolytic processes.(Deb, Sharma, & Hassan, 2010). Surrounding this is the penumbra(Rodriguez-Yanez et al., 2006)
Different cellular signaling pathways respond to calcium levels. The inflow of calcium resulting from glutamate receptor stimulation leads to their activation.
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Ischemic Stroke is caused due to a blood clot in an area of the brain, leading to loss of neural function if last for more than 24 hours. In the United States, ischemic stroke affects 2.7% of men and 2.5% of women of age range 18 years and older. In addition, it has reported that annually about 610,000 and 185,000 of new strokes and recurrent strokes cases occur in US1. Moreover, it has reported that patients who have suffered from a stroke have more chances of recurrent stroke, Myocardial infarction, and death from vascular causes2. One of the risk factor of ischemic stroke is formation of plaque in the blood vessels causing blood clot3. Several randomized trials have also reported that antiplatelet medications are efficient in preventing recurrences of stroke in patients who had an incident of ischemic stroke. Antiplatelet medications for preventing recurrences of stroke are aspirin, combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole, and clopidogrel alone4. It ha...
The main aim of this report is to present and analyse the disease called Cerebrovascular Accident popularly known as stroke. This disease affects the cerebrovascular system, which is a part of the cardiovascular system. To achieve this aim this report will firstly talk about the cerebrovascular system with its structure and functions. The main body of this report will look at causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and prevention of stroke.
An entity states that, stroke the extremely important term that accelerates the mortality and morbidity rate in our country. The disabling cerebral tube sickness additionally incorporates an important impact on residual advantages that ends up in the most important economic loss . Though India is rated among the country lacking enough information associated with stroke, a number of the recent studies elucidated the stroke pattern to significant extent in our country with a prevalence rate of 471.58/Lakh population .
The human body is an amazing machine, we have cells, tissues, organs and organ system that come together to create the human race. Each system plays a key role in our bodies mechanism. Without each systems our bodies would not function properly, but what happens when one of these system fails? The Cardiovascular system components are blood, blood vessels and the heart. The hearts function is to pump blood to all the major organs and tissues (Circulatory). It’s also important to be aware of the derivation that our bodies may encounter, for example a stroke. In this passage I discuss different types of strokes, what are the signs and symptoms and after care for this disorder of the cardiovascular system.
Strokes are not only the leading cause of mentally disabling adults, but they are also the third most common reason for deaths worldwide (Jarvis, 2012). In general, a stroke, also called a “cerebrovascular accident,” occurs when blood flow of the vascular system is blocked from reaching parts of the brain (Jarvis, 2012). There are two types of stroke, an ischemic stroke or a hemorrhagic stroke, and they differ in the way they affect the vascular system. An ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke, accounting for 80 percent of all strokes, and it is due to a thrombus or embolus blocking blood vessels supplying the brain (Durukan & Tatlisumak, 2007). A hemorrhagic stroke is less common, but is caused by the rupturing of a blood vessel in the brain and causes bleeding (Jarvis, 2012).
Cerebrovascular disease or the term stroke is used to describe the effects of an interruption of the blood supply to a localised area of the brain. It is characterized by rapid focal or global impairment of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death (Hatano, 1976). As such it is a clinically defined syndrome and should not be regarded as a single disease. Stroke affects 174-216 people per 10,000 population in the UK per year and accounts for 11% of all deaths in England and Wales (Mant et al, 2004). The risk of recurrent stroke within 5 years is between 30-43%. One problem is that the incidence of stroke rises steeply with age and the number of elderly people in the UK is on the increase. To date people who experience a stroke occupy around 20 per cent of all acute hospital beds and 25 per cent of long term beds (Stroke Association, 2004). The British Government now identifies stroke as a major economic burden on the National Health Service (DoH, 2002).
Byrant et.al  notes that a rapid response is initiated by a ligand/drug binding to a receptor on the ligand gated channel on the cell surface. This binding of the ligand results in the ligand gated channel to open or close, triggering the entry or exit of ions into or out of the cell, along a concentration gradient, causing a cellular response the cell. . Cocaine is an example of a drug which blocks sodium channels. This causes blocked neural transmission and localized loss of sensation .
Stroke is one amongst the foremost distressing experiences that can happen to anyone. A stroke is caused by an intermission of the blood offer to half of the brain. The term ‘stroke’ comes from the actual fact that it always happens with none warning, ‘striking’ the person from out of the blue. Worldwide, each year 2/1000 individuals have a stroke. Five out of six strokes happen in individuals over the age of sixty. It is hardly ever obvious why somebody ought to have suffered a stroke. Contrary to widespread belief, stress, and either future or following a sudden event, is not in itself a reason behind a stroke. The most common is obtaining older and alternative factors are high blood pressure (hypertension), smoking, being overweight, having too much sugar in blood (diabetes) and having abundant in excessive amount of cholesterol in blood. Strokes occur once the blood flow within the brain is hampered and brain tissue is broken. There are 2 major varieties of strokes: Ischemic and Trauma. The severity of injury to the brain tissue depends on several factors together with age, area of the brain affected, and alternative medical conditions. If the hand and arm doesn’t have medical aid in real time when stroke, it will reduce the power and muscle management, leading to a claw like look and loss of perform. Activities of the patient daily legal document will be significantly affected.
The World Health Organisation (2013) explains that an Ischaemic stroke occurs as a result of a blood vessel becoming blocked by a clot, reducing the supply of oxygen to the brain and, therefore, damaging tissue. The rationale for selecting Mary for this discussion is; the author wishes to expand her evidenced based knowledge of stroke since it is the principal cause of disability and the third leading cause of mortality within the Scottish population (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), 2008) and, therefore, a national priority. In response to this priority, the Scottish Government (2009) produced their ‘Better Heart Disease and Stroke Care Action Plan’. Additionally, they have introduced a HEAT target to ensure 90% of stroke patients get transferred to a specialised stroke unit on the day of admission to hospital (Scottish Government, 2012).
CVAs occur when blood circulation to a brain area is blocked and brain tissue dies of ischemia, a reduction of blood supply that impairs the delivery of oxygen and nutrients. The most common cause of CVA is a blood clot that blocks a cerebral artery. A clot can originate outside the brain or form on the roughened interior wall of a brain artery narrowed by atherosclerosis. Less frequently, strokes are caused by bleeding, which compresses brain tissue. Not all strokes are "completed." Temporary episodes of reversible cerebral ischemia, called transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), a...
Stroke is a serious medical condition that affects people of all ages specifically older adults. People suffer from a stroke when there is decreased blood flow to the brain. Blood supply decreases due to a blockage or a rupture of a blood vessel which then leads to brain tissues dying. The two types of stroke are ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. An ischemic stroke is caused by a blood clot blocking the artery that brings oxygenated blood to the brain. On the other hand, a hemorrhagic stroke is when an artery in the brain leaks or ruptures (“About Stroke,” 2013). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and is a major cause of adult disability” (“About Stroke,” 2013). Stroke causes a number of disabilities and also leads to decreased mobility in over half of the victims that are 65 and older. The CDC lists several risk factors of stroke such as heredity, age, gender and ethnicity as well as medical conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and excessive weight gain that in...
Stroke occurs when the blood supply to the brain is blocked or condensed. Blood works to transport oxygen and other beneficial substances to the body’s cells and organs, as well as the brain. There are two main types of strokes that are known as Ischemic strokes and Hemorrhagic strokes. When the blood vessels that provides for the brain becomes congested, is it referred to as ischemic stroke, the most common stroke within adults. Blood clots, a cluster of blood that sticks together, are the cause of Ischemic strokes. Ischemic strokes also takes place when arteries become backed up with plague, leaving less blood to flow. Plague is cholesterol, calcium and fibrous and connective tissue that sticks to the walls of blood vessels. Ischemic strokes eternally damage the brain and cause a person's body to no longer function habitually.Some risk factors that may increase stroke are high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity. Some stroke factors are also due to old age or having a family that has a history of strokes. Men are more likely to have a stroke but the most st...
A stroke is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke
I realized it was a stroke,” –Fred, a stroke survivor. Some of the most common symptoms indicating that a stroke is occurring include sudden numbness or loss of movement in the limbs on one side of your body or face, sudden vision changes, sudden trouble speaking, sudden confusion, a very intense headache, or sudden balance issues. Stroke is simply acquired when the blood supply to the brain is suspended, but to get to the roots of what causes it, a stroke is triggered by the slowly forming plaque buildup over time. The plaque is made up of calcium, fat, cholesterol, cellular waste, and fibrin, a material involved in blood clotting. The plaque existing in an artery can grow big enough to block the supply of blood to the brain, resulting in a stroke. A stroke can also be caused by high blood pressure breaking a blood vessel in the brain causing internal bleeding. Although there is no cure, as damage the brain is usually irreversible if not cared for quickly; there are different treatments available for both types of stroke. For an ischemic stroke, a tissue called plasminogen activator can be injected into an artery to break up