Typically, the lower extremities are involved before the upper extremities and a loss of reflexes is common. It is with this type of neuropathy that ulcers, wounds, infections, and in severe cases, amputation is most common (Dyck, Feldmen, & Vinick). Autonomic Neuropathy affects the internal organs primarily. It can affect the cardiovascular system by hampering its ability to regulate pulse, blood pressure, and body temperature. It can affect the digestive system with gastroparesis, dysphagia, and uncontrollable weight loss and malnutrition.
These types of ulcers may be caused by varicose veins, obesity, hereditary factors, or being older. Inflammatory diseases such as vasculitis, lupus, scleroderma, or other rheumatological disease states can also help create poor venous function and diminished skin texture which may lead to venous stasis ulcers (Foot Pain Explained). Also, if you are not active or if you stand a lot, you may get venous stasis which may lead to an ulcer. The ulcer usually presents itself as an open sore in an area that already exhibits a red to brown discoloration that has probably been present for some time (Foot Pain Explained). The lower part of the leg will be swollen and skin may also be somewhat flaky and itching.
Surgery may be needed in some cases to repair the colon. Diverticulitis The disease occurs when pouches in the large intestine become infected and inflamed, Symptoms may include but not limited to severe abdominal pain often in the lower left side of the abdomen, constipation, diarrhea, nausea and fever. Circulatory: Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep vein thrombosis occurs when blood clots form in one of the deep veins in the thigh or calf. Many people with the condition do not have symptoms, but they may have leg pain, swelling or skin discoloration. It can be life threatening because it can cause a pulmonary embolism PolyarteritisNodosa Ployarteritisnodosa is an inflammatory disease of the small to medium sized arteries.
Something as small and mild as leg pain when you have sickle cell may end up being life-threatening or the cause of your death. The sickle red blood cells that are stuck and is the cause of the mild pain in the leg may cause a blood clot. That blood clot would then travel through the body into the lungs and stop the natural blood flow. People with sickle cell disease have a weak immune system and when a sickle cell crisis happens whether the pain is mild or severe they should always seek medical help. Working out, overheating, getting too cold, not drinking enough fluids, change in air pressure, and getting sick are some triggers of a sickle cell
Less common symptoms may include anal tears or fissures, fistulas, sores in the mouth. However, tears and fissures are the more damaging affects of the disease and may cause problems with other or... ... middle of paper ... ... a patient will be left with what is known as short gut syndrome in which the digestive tract is too short to properly absorb nutrients from all the removing and reconnecting of the intestinal tract. When there is too much damage to the intestinal tract in severe cases a patient could also end up with ileostomy in which there is a hole made on the patients abdomen for waste to go through. There is research being done with Crohn’s that is testing whether or not bone marrow transplants would be effective in treating the disease. The use of immune system suppressors is also being questioned and researched and may be more problematic than they are a solution.
The cardiovascular effects include degeneration of the small arteries of the retina and the kidneys, leading to blindness and kidney failure as common complications. People with type I diabetes are more likely to die of kidney failure than those with type II diabetes. Diabetes also promotes atherocslerosis, the blockage of blood vessels with fatty deposits, causing poor circulation. In type II diabetes, the most common cause of death is heart failure stemming from atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis also contributes to renal failure and gangrene.
This can lead to poor circulation and can hinder the healing of wounds, cause heart disease, stroke, gangrene of the feet and hands, and infections. The eyes are also affected. The small blood vessels of the retina become damaged leading to decreased night vision and ultimately blindness. Poor kidney function and kidney failure may also arise due to thickening of the blood vessels in the kidneys. Protein leaks into the urine and the blood is not filtered normally.
Peripheral artery disease is usually caused by atherosclerosis, which is when fatty deposits accumulate in the arteries of, most likely, limbs. This does affect all arteries throughout the body, then in turn, slowing the blood flow. PAD may also be due to inflammation of the blood vessels, injury to the extremities, or even exposure to radiation. “Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 10% of the American population” (Gurbir Dhaliwal; Peripheral arterial disease: Epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis and treatment; 2007). If not taken care of, PAD may lead to critical limb ischemia, open sores on the feet or legs that become infected by gangrene.
Introduction Inflammatory bowel disease which includes ulcerative colitis is characterised by chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal system. It has a rising incidence and is fast becoming a worldwide problem.1 It is associated with significant morbidity, loss of the quality of life, and an increased colorectal risk. Studies have shown that 18% of patients suffer long term complications from the disease. Up to 30% will go on to needing a colectomy at 10 years.1 Management centres on confirming the disease, excluding differential diseases and appropriate pharmacological and surgical interventions. Pharmacological management options include steroids and disease modifying drugs such as infliximab, tacrolimus and methotrexate.
Patients may have pain that is aggravated with movement, or a noticeable height reduction due to vertebral collapse (Rajkumar, 2012). Although rare, extramedullary plasmacytomas can be palpated (Rajkumar, 2012). Hypercalcemia is normally noted on labs, but a patient may complain of polyuria, polydipsia, nausea, vomiting, or constipation and more concerning altered mental status or seizure activity (Munshi & Jagannath, 2012). Hypercalemia associated dehydration can cause renal failure; this is considered a hematologic emergency warranting hospital admission (Munshi & Jagannath, 2012). Renal failure can be caused by a number of disease complications with light chain cast nephropat... ... middle of paper ... ...., 2011).